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Conference Program

We are pleased to present the program for the IPY 2012 From Knowledge to Action Conference. The program features presentations on the latest polar results from the natural, social and health sciences, as well as indigenous research.

In addition to the program presented here on the main Conference website, a searchable program is also available on a separate website. This searchable program contains a Session Planner which is not linked to the "My Schedule" featured here.

List of all abstracts >

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  Sunday (22) Monday (23)Tuesday (24)Wednesday (25)Thursday (26)Friday (27)  


Side Meetings

Earth Day Events

08h30 - 10h30
Opening Ceremony
11h00 - 12h00
Opening Keynote:
Dr. G. H. Brundtland
Dr. David J. Hayes
Plenary Keynote: (8h45)
Aqqaluk Lynge
Plenary Keynote:
Dr. Louis Fortier
9h15 - The Weston Prize
Mr. Palle Christiansen
Plenary Keynote: (8h45)
Dr. Sheila Jasanoff
Plenary Keynote:
Dr. José Xavier
09h30 Coffee break Coffee Break Coffee Break Coffee Break 09h30
10h00 Parallel Sessions Parallel Sessions Parallel Sessions Parallel Sessions 10h00
12h00 Lunch / S. MacLean Lunch Lunch Lunch / IASC Medal Closing Ceremony 12h00
13h30 Parallel Sessions Parallel Sessions Parallel Sessions Parallel Sessions   13h30
15h00 Coffee break Coffee break Coffee break Coffee break 15h00
15h30 Plenary Panel: Poles & Global Linkages
Parallel Sessions
Plenary Panel: Adaptation to Change
Parallel Sessions
Plenary Panel: Ecosystems: Science and Stewardship
Parallel Sessions
Plenary Panel: Communities & Health
Parallel Sessions
17h00 Poster Session A Poster Session B Poster Session   17h00
19h00 18:00 - 20:30
Welcome Reception
  Polar Film Festival Polar Film Festival Banquet
NFB - Films

My schedule >

FRIDAY, 27 APRIL - Parallel Sessions (10h00-12h00)

Click on the sessions to view titles of presentations.
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Titles marked with this symbol () contain a link to a FrostByte (a short recorded audio or video).

10h00 - 12h00 1.1.3 Polar Processes and Global Biogeochemical

Room: 520EFChairs: Ronnie Glud and Torben Christensen

10h00 - INVITED: Microbial Life at the Boundary between Sea Ice and Atmosphere

J.W. Deming1, J.S. Bowman1, M. Ewert1, R.E. Collins2

1University of Washington, Seattle, USA2McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada

Opportunities provided by the overwintering icebreaker expedition of the IPY-CFL project in the southeastern Beaufort Sea have led to an expanded view of the importance of brine expelled onto the surface of new sea ice - as it forms initially and then thickens and matures - and the frost flowers that grow upon it. These surface-ice features are now known to harbor elevated densities of microorganisms (bacteria) and, at times, high concentrations of the extracellular polysaccharide substances (EPS) understood to protect cells against damage from freezing and high salt concentrations. A relative abundance of organisms and released organic matter at this ice-atmosphere boundary has implications for atmospheric chemistry, the fate of contaminants in polar regions, the dispersal of microbes into the troposphere, and the limits of life. Since the IPY, we have continued to explore (with support from the NSF and NASA Astrobiology Institute) various aspects of microbial life at this ice-atmosphere boundary, including the snow-covered circumstance where the saline snow layer can also be enriched in bacteria (relative to background snow levels). Repeated observations of correlations between bacterial abundance and salinity had already indicated sea-ice brine as the source of both salt and bacteria to surface-ice features, but differences in characteristics of these relationships by type of feature (brines, frost flowers, saline snow) suggest inefficiencies in the upwards transport mechanism (bacterial retention in the underlying ice), microbial mortality following transport, or both. Results of microscopic and extracellular DNA analyses in newly formed sea ice are consistent with a high degree of viral infection and host death even prior to expulsion onto the surface of the ice. A combination of phylogenetic (16s rRNA gene-based), microscopic (including live/dead staining) and EPS analyses indicate selective microbial transport into frost flowers and saline snow, as well as potential atmospheric inputs of gelatinous EPS to the surface of the snow cover and of microbes that would mask transport from below. The extent to which the boundary between sea ice and atmosphere may function as a habitat for microbes, actively contributing to various biogeochemical cycles, motivates our ongoing efforts.

10h30 - Oxygen and CO2 Dynamics in Sea-ice

R.N. Glud1,2,3, S. Rysgaard2,4, D. Søgaard2, R.J.G. Leaky3

1University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark2Greenland Climate research Centre, Nuuk, Greenland;3Scottish Association for Marine Science, Oban, Scotland4University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada

Sea ice plays a central role in regulating seasonal oceanic-atmospheric gas exchange. Chemical, biological and physical processes within the brine system all affect the O2 and CO2 concentration of the ice and the sea-ice permeability to a large extent determine the exchange rates with the surroundings. The relative importance of the respective processes for gas exchange will be discussed on the basis of a number of case studies from around Greenland. Special focus will be given to the comparison of photosynthesis, respiration, brine rejection, carbonate precipitation and melt water formation for the integrated gas (O2 and CO2) budgets as quantified by a range of complementary techniques. The integrated budgets will be put in perspective to overall ecosystem function and discussed in context of the declining sea-ice cover as observed in most Arctic ecosystems.

10h45 - Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and Dimethylsulfide (DMS) Distribution and Cycling in the Canadian Arctic

J. Motard-Côté1, M. Levasseur2, L. Oswald1, M. Gosselin3, M. Blais3, R.P. Kiene1

1University of South Alabama, Mobile, USA, and Dauphin Island Sea Lab, Dauphin2Université Laval (Québec-Océan), Québec, Canada3ISMER-UQAR, Rimouski, Canada

One of the most evident consequences of global warming is the dramatic reduction in the extent of the Arctic ice cover, which is expected to affect global productivity, community dynamics and biogeochemical cycles. The osmolyte dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) plays a significant role in the microbial cycling of carbon and sulfur, and it can be degraded into the climatically active gas dimethylsulfide (DMS). Yet, the fragmentary nature of existing data sets limits our understanding of the response of DMSP and DMS dynamics to such changes in the Arctic ecosystem. The Canadian IPY and ArcticNet programs allowed us to determine the distribution and cycling of DMSP-DMS in Northern Baffin Bay, Lancaster Sound and the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) in the summers of 2008 and 2011. DMSP and DMS concentrations in the water column were determined by gas chromatography while the microbial cycling of DMSP was characterized using the radioisotopic tracer, 35S-DMSP. In 2011, spatial distribution of total and dissolved DMSP (DMSPt and DMSPd) followed the abundance of Chl α < 5 µm, suggesting that DMSP was mainly produced by small phytoplankton cells. Mean concentration of near surface DMSPt was 18.1 nM, with higher values found in the western Baffin Bay (40.5 nM) and in partially ice covered areas of the CAA (24.4 nM). DMSPd concentrations were generally lower than 2 nM. DMS concentration was correlated with DMSPt and DMSPd distributions. Peak concentrations of DMS were found in Lancaster Sound for both years (6.3 nM in 2011 and 4.8 nM in 2008). The mean phytoplankton biomass in 2011 was 4 times higher than in 2008 (162 versus 38 mg Chl α m-2) and was strongly correlated with the biomass of Chl α > 5 µm, indicating that larger cells were mainly responsible for this higher biomass. Despite higher phytoplankton biomass in 2011, concentrations of DMSPt were similar for both years, suggesting that the larger cells responsible for the higher biomass in 2011 were weak DMSP-producers. Accordingly, the affinity of the microbial community for DMSPd (mean DMSPd turnover rate) was 50% lower in 2011 than in 2008 (0.042 and 0.064 h-1, respectively). DMSP-sulfur assimilation into macromolecules (for protein synthesis) was 75% lower in 2011 than 2008 (mean values of 8.7 and 15.4 %, respectively). Overall, these results suggest that the size-structure of the phytoplankton community may be a key factor in the future response of DMSP production and cycling to climate change.

11h00 - Chemical and Physical Properties of the Surface Mixed Layer during First-year Sea-ice Formation in the Canadian Arctic

B. Lansard1, A. Mucci2, Y. Gratton3, L.A. Miller4, H. Thomas5

1CNRS-LEGOS2McGill University-GEOTOP3INRS-ETE4Fisheries and Oceans Canada5Dalhousie University

The shrinking of Arctic sea-ice cover and thickness has been ongoing for the past 60 years, making large areas of the Arctic Ocean prone to becoming ice-free during the summer melt season. Nevertheless, each winter residual sea-ice thickens and new, thinner ice is formed. When the sea is ice-covered, the effect of wind-forcing is diminished, and density-driven flows can occur, due to the release of brine during ice formation. The rejection of brine from sea ice is known to be one of the primary sources of dense water in high latitude seas, which contributes to the CO2 solubility pump. However, the release of brine solutes has never been quantified based on in situ measurements and its effect on the chemical and physical properties of the surface mixed layer (SML) has not been properly evaluated.

The SML properties were monitored in situ during first-year sea-ice formation based on winter time-series of measurements (CTD, carbonate parameters, δ18O) carried out in Franklin Bay (CASES, 2003-2004) and in the Cape Bathurst Polynya (CFL-IPY, 2007-2008). The two time-series confirmed the strong influence of sea-ice formation on the chemical and physical evolution of the SML, despite the difference in location. During early winter, as sea ice formed, salinity, total alkalinity (TA) and total dissolved inorganic carbon (TIC) concentrations increased dramatically in the SML, in response to brine rejection and from vertical mixing. The salinity of the SML increased from 27 to 31.5 between November and May. At the same time, TA and TIC increased by 14% in the SML. The rejection rates (R) from the growing sea ice to the underlying water column were estimated from the two in situ time-series. The effects of brine-driven convection on the SML were investigated using ship-based CTD observations and high frequency CTD measurements with a McLane Moored Profiler. Convection was usually restricted to the SML but can reach over 100 m in or near leads. Throughout the winter, the increases of δ18O in the SML also confirmed that strong vertical mixing occurred under the ice and impact the properties of the SML. Eddies in the Arctic could also affect the top 200 m of the water column, including the deep halocline between Pacific and Atlantic waters. Temporal variations of water mass distributions show that the winter Polar Mixed Layer (S=32) is formed during the winter by the injection of brine.

11h15 - Ice Algal Production in Seasonally Ice-Covered Regions of Antarctica: Observations and Modelling

E. Molina1,2, P. Ralph2, A. McMinn1

1University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia2University of Technology, Sydney, Australia

Sea-ice dominates the Antarctic marine ecosystem. It covers approximately 19 x 106 km² of the Southern Ocean each winter and then retracts to 4 million km2 over summer. Microalgal mats develop on the underside of the sea ice as it forms, often in higher concentrations than occur in the water column, and then released again when the sea ice melts. The seasonal sea-ice zone is by far the most productive region of the Southern Ocean. In particular, it is the main foraging region for a large number of air-breathing predators (seals, whales, penguins and other birds). The main prey is krill, whose life cycle is strongly associated with sea-ice algae. The amount of light available to drive sea-ice algal production depends on variations in the presence of interior algal layers, and the thickness of ice and snow. This project measured a range of bio-optical processes in sea-ice algae under various light climates. Direct measurements and model estimates of light transmission through ice and snow were obtained during fall/winter and spring/summer periods at two seasonal fast-ice sites in the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) and in East Antarctica (northeast of Casey Station), respectively. Measurements of pigment concentration and optical properties of the sea-ice algae (e.g. PAM fluorescence, light absorption) were also collected. A one-dimensional sea-ice model was then developed to predict the rate of photosynthesis of sea-ice algae given specific light conditions. When compared with observations, the model results show that ice algae are light limited at the beginning of the spring bloom, then fluctuated between light and nutrient limitation, finally remaining nutrient limited toward the end of the bloom. The modelled time series if ice-algal biomass is supported strongly by the observations collected in East Antarctica (spring/summer). Simulated bottom biomass in the WAP represented at most 20% of the total biomass, and this biomass is 2-16 times lower than observed. The sensitivity studies informed about physical and biological factors that can control sea-ice algal growth in various ways. Doubling light intensity or initial sea-ice biomass prompted the bloom to start earlier but the effects lessened near the bloom peak. Doubling initial nutrient concentrations did not produce much difference in the early stage of the bloom but dramatically increased the bloom's magnitude. The model showed a rapid ice-algae decline probably triggered by surface meltwater flushing. However, the results are still not sufficient to prove that the model is robust in simulating the termination of the ice-algae bloom. More observations are needed to validate the model and to fully understand this process. Although there are limitations in the model (i.e. failing in capturing the observed algal biomass in the WAP), these preliminary results provide encouraging estimates of Antarctic ice-algal production and inform about the factors controlling the bottom-ice algal community.

11h30 - Microbial Dynamics in the Beaufort Sea during the Fall 2009 IPY Geotraces Expedition

R. Rivkin1, J. Tucker1, A. Hamilton2, M. Hale2

1Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada2University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, United Kingdom

Heterotrophic bacteria are crucial components of marine food webs. They frequently dominate the flux of organic carbon, inorganic nutrients and essential trace elements and isotopes in the World Ocean. Most of the carbon channeled through bacteria and other heterotrophic microbes is respired rather than being channeled to large organisms or export and stored in the deep ocean. Consequently, microbial food web activity largely determines the response of oceanic ecosystems and the carbon cycle to climate change. The distribution and activity of these small organisms and their interactions are well studied in low latitudes however there is far less known about their distributions, community structure, activity, and food web interactions, and hence their impact on upper open biogeochemistry in high latitudes and cold oceans. If similar to low latitudes, the activity of the microbial food web in polar waters will have a disproportionately large influence on the cycling and flux of biogeochemical and climatically important properties in these regions. As part of the Canadian Geotraces IPY expedition in the Beaufort Sea, we characterized the spatial and depth distributions and activity of heterotrophic bacteria and protists on a latitudinal transect from the Mackenzie River delta (∼ 69°N) into the Arctic Ocean (∼ 76°N). Bacterial abundance and production decreased significantly (p < 0.001) between shelf and off-shelf regions and with depth. Within a region (i.e. shelf vs offshore), the relationship with potentially important climate- and ecosystem- related properties varied, with generally stronger relationships with temperature, chlorophyll and nutrients offshore than on the shelf. This suggests that there are different ecosystem drivers on microbial processes in different regions of the Beaufort Sea. Most bacterial properties and community respiration decreased rapidly with depth, however subsurface maxima in bacterial production and growth were occasional observed. The results from this expedition are combined with an Arctic-wide meta-analysis of bacterial and related properties to assess the potential effect of an evolving Arctic climate on microbial and biogeochemical processes in high latitude oceans.

11h45 - Characteristics of Colored Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) in the Chukchi Sea: Relationships with Microbial Activities

A. Matsuoka1,2, E. Ortega-Retuerta3, A. Bricaud1, K.R. Arrigo4, M. Babin1,2

1Laboratoire d'Océanographie de Villefranche (LOV)/ CNRS, Villefranche-sur-Mer, France2Takuvik Joint International Laboratory, Université Laval (Canada) - CNRS, Canada3Laboratoire d'Océanographie Microbienne (LOMIC)/ CNRS, Banyuls-sur-Mer, France4Department of Environmental Earth System Science, Stanford University, Stanford, USA

Colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) plays various roles in physical and biogeochemical processes. We investigated light absorption coefficients of CDOM [aCDOM(λ)], using a UltraPath liquid waveguide system equipped with a 2 m pathlength, in the Chukchi Sea during ice-melting in spring as part of the ICESCAPE2010 Arctic expedition. aCDOM(440) values in the surface layer in this season were significantly higher than in summer (p < 0.0001). Correspondingly, SCDOM values were lower in spring than in summer (p < 0.0001). Those results indicate that photo-bleaching actually occurred near the surface between spring and summer for Arctic waters. We found that SCDOM values were significantly lower in southern Chukchi Sea (0.0149 ± 0.0010 nm-1) compared to those in surrounding waters (0.0171 ± 0.0010 nm-1). Bacterial production (BP) in this area tended to be high (< 312 µg m-3 h-1). In addition, significant and negative correlations of SCDOM versus chl α and phaeopigment concentrations were found only in this specific area (r2 = 0.64 and 0.70, respectively), suggesting that CDOM might originate from phytoplankton there. From our field observations, it was shown that microbial activities can be partly reflected by light absorption properties of CDOM.

10h00 - 12h00 1.2.1 Atmospheric, Physical and Chemical (Clouds, Precipitation and Aerosol)

Room: 516CChair: Eric Girard

10h00 - Assessment of the Effects of Acid-Coated Ice Nuclei on the Arctic Cloud Microstructure, Atmospheric Dehydration, Radiation and
Temperature during Winter.

E. Girard1, A.K. Bertram2, G. Dueymes1, P. Du1

1University of Quebec at Montreal, Montreal, Canada2University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada

Owing to the large-scale transport of pollution-derived aerosols from the mid-latitudes to the Arctic, most of the aerosols are coated with acidic sulfate during winter in the Arctic. Recent laboratory experiments have shown that acid coating on dust particles substantially reduces the ability of these particles to nucleate ice crystals. Simulations performed using the Limited Area version of the Global Multiscale Environmental Model (GEM-LAM) are used to assess the potential effect of acid coated-ice nuclei on the Arctic cloud and radiation processes during January and February 2007. Ice nucleation is treated using a new parameterization based on laboratory experiments of ice nucleation on sulphuric acid-coated and uncoated kaolinite particles. Results show that acid coating on dust particles has an important effect on cloud microstructure, atmospheric dehydration, radiation and temperature over the Central Arctic, which is the coldest part of the Arctic. Mid and upper ice clouds are optically thinner while low-level mixed-phase clouds are more frequent and persistent. These changes in the cloud microstructures affect the radiation at the top of the atmosphere with longwave negative cloud forcing values ranging between 0 and -6 Wm-2 over the region covered by the Arctic air mass.

10h15 - Significant Progress in Detecting the Arctic Aerosol Indirect Effect during the IPY Period

D. Lubin1, A.M. Vogelmann2

1Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla CA, USA2Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton NY, USA

One of the most pressing issues in current climate change research involves the effects of aerosols - from natural sources, anthropogenic pollutants, and biomass burning. In particular, the indirect effects of aerosols - their impact on cloud microphysical properties which in turn affect the surface and atmospheric energy budget - remain difficult to quantify. However, the high Arctic has recently proven to be a fruitful location for detecting and quantifying aerosol indirect effects, due to the region's pervasive low-level stratiform cloud cover. In the first indirect effect, an increase in the abundance of aerosol particles that can act as cloud condensation nuclei yields a larger number of cloud droplets for a given precipitable water content, and these more numerous droplets have a smaller effective diameter. These smaller droplets in turn increase both the cloud reflectivity and emissivity, with a concomitant impact on the radiation budget. During winter and spring, the Arctic atmosphere is susceptible to heavy anthropogenic and biomass burning aerosol loading, commonly known as the 'Arctic haze.' This aerosol burden, combined with climatologically significant overcast sky conditions, implies the potential for a pervasive indirect effect in the Arctic for much of the year. During the years encompassing IPY, advanced atmospheric remote sensing instrumentation has collected enough data to yield robust detections of the Arctic aerosol indirect effect. These data were collected at the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site located Northeast of Barrow, Alaska. Using a Fourier-Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectrodadiometer, in conjunction with cloud lidar and radar observations, we are able to retrieve the effective droplet radius of liquid water clouds at Barrow. Using concurrent aerosol observations, we show that episodes of Arctic haze are consistent with smaller droplet size in low-level stratiform clouds. Moreover, the resulting increase in cloud emissivity appears in broadband longwave pyrgeometer data, representing a climatologically-averaged increase of 3.4 Watts per square meter in cloud emission to the Arctic sea ice surface. The indirect is also detected in shortwave pyranometer measurements, such that the net (shortwave plus longwave) indirect effect transitions from a surface heating of 3 Watts per square meter during March to a cooling of 11 Watts per square meter during May. During the April 2008 ARM Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC), an additional shortwave spectroradiometer was deployed at NSA, which provided enhanced capability to retrieve effective radius in optically thicker clouds, and which also provided a data set suitable for high-time-resolution process studies in cloud microphysics. Now that field research accomplished during the IPY timeframe has detected the first aerosol indirect effect and provided its basic climatological context, future work during an International Polar Decade can focus on detecting trends in this effect, perhaps related to trends in Arctic haze abundance and cloud and sea ice changes induced by Arctic climate warming.

10h30 - Interplay of Temperature Inversions and Aerosols over the Arctic

A. Devasthale1, M. Tjernström2,3

1Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI), Norrkoping, Sweden2Meteorological Institute, Stockholm University (MISU), Stockholm, Sweden3Bert Bolin Center for Climate Research, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden

Temperature inversions are one of the dominant features of the Arctic atmosphere and exercise strong influence on the vertical distribution and mixing of pollutants. It is well established that the large-scale meteorology governs the seasonal aerosol transport over the Arctic. However, the varying inversion strength and its seasonality, regulates the degree of coupling of transported aerosols with the boundary layer and will shape radiative heating of the atmosphere differently. Here, using 5-yr collocated observations of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and CALIOP-CALIPSO sensors from the NASA's A-Train constellation, we investigate statistical link between temperature inversions and aerosol vertical distribution over the Arctic. We elaborate on key large-scale features that control interplay between inversions and aerosol distribution and discuss implications for the modeling of radiative impact.

10h45 - Long-term Chemical Compositional Analysis of the Finnish Arctic Aerosol

J.R. Laing1, P.K. Hopke1, L. Husain2,3, V.A. Dutkiewicz2,3, J. Paatero4, Y. Viisinen4

1Clarkson University, Potsdam, USA2New York State Department of Health, Albany, USA3SUNY School of Public Health, Albany, USA4Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland

Climate change in the Arctic is heavily influenced by the climate forcing of aerosols. Long-term trends on Arctic aerosol composition, specifically sulfate and black carbon, will lead to a greater understanding of the climatic effects in the Arctic and possible future implications. Week-long historical filter samples collected at Kevo, Finland from 1964-1990 have been analyzed for various chemical species. The filters from 1964-1978 have been analyzed for trace metals by neutron activation (INAA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), major ions and methane sulfonate (MSA) by ion chromatography, black carbon, and elemental carbon (Yli-Tuomi 2003a, 2003b). Filters after 1978 have been analyzed for total and soluble trace elements by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), major ions and methane sulfonate (MSA) by ion chromatography, black carbon, and elemental carbon. The solubility of certain elements can provide information about the origin of the aerosol and formation processes. Trend analysis will be performed on individual species. The complete data set will be analyzed by Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). The receptor modeling results will be connected with back trajectory data in a Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) analysis to determine possible source areas. Future work includes complete chemical analysis of the weekly filters through 2010 for trace elements and soluble trace elements by ICP-MS, major ions and methane sulfonate (MSA) by ion chromatography, and black carbon by light-absorption and thermo-optical techniques. This complete dataset will be able to provide insight into the long term trend of Arctic aerosol chemical species and the possible implications of global climate change in the Arctic.

11h00 - Characterizing the Structure of Persistent Mixed-phase Arctic Clouds during ISDAC using In-situ Observations and Modeling

A. Korolev1, M. Ovchinnikov2, G. McFarquhar3, M. Wolde4, W. Strapp1

1Environment Canada, Downsview, Canada2Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA3University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA4National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Canada5Environment Canada, Downsview, Canada

The study is focused on the analysis of persistent Arctic mixed phase stratiform clouds observed during the Indirect Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) over Arctic Ocean in the Barrow region. Characterization of the clouds were conducted from the NRC Convair 580 equipped with a suite of state-of -the-art in-situ and remote sensing instrumentation enabling accurate and highly redundant characterization of cloud microphysics. Multiple vertical soundings show high degree of spatial and temporal homogeneity of microphysical parameters in the clouds, which extended horizontally over a distance of one hundred kilometers and a time period of several hours. The vertical profiles of basic microphysical parameters, such as ice and liquid water contents, the extinction coefficient, droplet and ice particle concentration and their characteristic sizes, are presented along with observations from the onboard X-band Doppler radar showing well defined circulation cells embedded in the cloud layers. A link between vertical distributions of the microphysical and radiative parameters and the cloud dynamics is demonstrated with the help of high resolution numerical simulations.

11h15 - Self-organization and Resilience of Arctic Mixed-phase Clouds

H. Morrison1, G. de Boer2,5, G. Feingold3, J. Y. Harrington4, M.D. Shupe5, K. Sulia4

1National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, USA2Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, USA3National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, USA4Pennsylvania State University, State College, USA5University of Colorado CIRES/NOAA, Boulder, USA

The Arctic climate system is particularly sensitive to climate change, with potentially dramatic consequences for the regional ecosystem. Arctic mixed-phase clouds, comprising both ice and supercooled liquid water, have been observed to occur frequently in all seasons and persist for many days at a time. Consequently they play a critical role in climate by regulating the flow of energy in the system. Due to the inherent instability of ice-liquid coexistence, the persistence of these clouds is remarkable. A conceptual model of Arctic mixed-phase clouds is described that points to the existence of numerous feedbacks acting at various timescales. This complex web of process interactions has made it difficult to assemble an overall picture of how these clouds persist. This uncertainty is reflected in the poor simulation of these clouds by numerical models at all scales, and suggests the need for a more integrated, systems-based methodology that complements existing strategies focused on untangling the web of process interactions. Such a 'systems dynamics' approach has proven fruitful in understanding emergent behavior of complex systems in other fields of study. Based upon recent observations and modeling studies, various aspects of the persistent mixed-phase cloud state will be described in the context of system dynamics, including concepts such as self-organization, resilience, slow manifolds, and state selection. Implications for climate modeling and climate sensitivity will be discussed.

11h30 - Precipitation Studies in the High Arctic

D. Hudak, P. Rodriguez

1Environment Canada, King City, Canada

Almost all climate models used to simulate global warming show an acceleration the global hydrological cycle - a change that will increase precipitation at higher latitudes. The purpose of this study is to explore this concept by enhancing our understanding of the precipitation characteristics of high latitude weather systems.

The data that has been collected is precipitation rate, amount, and type at a 1 minute time resolution using measurements based on forward scattering, optical extinction, and microwave scattering. The data base extends from 2007 onwards at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Reserach Laboratory in Eureka, Canada and from 2010 onwards at the Summit in Greenland.

There are a number of distinct challenges to snowfall measurement that distinguish it from rainfall. Various ground-based technologies that attempt to measure snow amount, instantaneous snowfall rate and snow properties in a variety of meteorological conditions will be presented. A weighing gauge with a Double Fence International Reference wind abatement system was determined to be the best reference for snowfall on time scales of one hour or longer. For shorter time scales, on the order of minutes as required in the validation of remote sensing measurements, results from a sampling of technologies is presented. No single technology proved superior in all conditions. Their performance varied with the nature of the solid precipitation. Data from vertically pointing Doppler radars are used to provide further insight into the interpretation of the various ground-based measurements.

The analysis provides estimates of the eastern Arctic precipitation frequency of occurrence, the spectrum of precipitation rates and total precipitation amount. At Eureka there has been fewer precipitation days, but more days with significant precipitation (> 5.0 mm per day). Rainfall has been above average while snowfall has been below average. A comparison with a similar analysis carried out with data at the Summit from 2010/2011 will be presented.

The precipitation episodes were then characterized in terms of duration, intensity and precipitation type. To understand dynamical mechanisms producing precipitation in the high Arctic during these episodes, the Environment Canada Polar GEM analysis was used to create composite synoptic maps. Scenarios were then developed of conceptual models of precipitation producing weather systems. The properties of these scenarios are then furthered refined in terms of their air mass characteristics (continental Arctic, maritime Arctic, and maritime Polar air) using traditional air mass analysis techniques and their planetary boundary layer characteristics using k-means clustering techniques. The results provide tools that can be used for assessing the representation of polar precipitation in the regional and global NWP and climate model forecasts.

11h45 - New Particle Formation at Dome C, Antarctica

A. Virkkula1,2, E. Järvinen2, T. Nieminen2, R. Väänänen2, H. Manninen2, P.P. Aalto2, E. Asmi1, M. Busetto3, A. Lupi3, V. Vitale3

1Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland2University of Helsinki, Department of Physics, Helsinki, Finland3ISAC-CNR, Bologna, Italy

INTRODUCTION: Aerosol number concentrations, size distributions and chemical composition have been studied at several stations around Antarctica. There exist long-term records of aerosol number concentrations, for instance from Neumayer and South Pole but aerosol number size distributions have been measured mainly during campaigns both at coastal stations and in the upper plateau at South Pole. The Norwegians recently started long-term size distribution measurements at the Troll station in Queen Maud Land but there are no long-term size distribution measurements from the upper plateau. The measurements presented here are the first step towards filling in this gap: particle number size distributions have been measured at the Dome C station (75°S, 123°E) in the upper plateau at about 3200 m amsl since December 2007. They were first stopped at the end of year 2009 due to technical problems but they were continued again in December 2010, and the goal is to continue these measurements. In this work we will present seasonal variation of the concentrations, the modal structure of particle number size distributions, a re-analysis of new particle formation episodes during the first continuous period until November 2009, and new data obtained with a new instrument.

METHODS: Particle number size distributions in the size range 10-600 nm were measured with a differential mobility particle sizer (DMPS) that consisted of a Hauke-type medium-size DMA in a closed-loop arrangement and a TSI Model 3010 CPC. The time resolution of the raw data was 10 minutes. In December 2010 a new instrument, Air Ion Spectrometer, that measures charged particle size distributions in the size range of about 0.4 - 40 nm, was installed at the station.
Different modes were identified from the size distributions a with an automatic algorithm. Growth rates during the particle formation episodes were calculated.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: There was a clear seasonal cycle in the number concentration data. The concentrations were at their lowest around July and August and at highest around January, which is in agreement with the data from all other stations in Antarctica. In the sunlit seasons there were from one to three modes in the size distributions, in the darkest period mainy only one. Strong new particle formation events were rare and only happened in summer when there is plenty of solar radiation available. However, a careful analysis of the size distribution data shows that these events did occur all year round, even in the darkest and coldest months June and July. These events were weak but not nonexistent, which is a new and interesting phenomenon, not reported earlier from the upper plateau of Antarctica.

10h00 - 12h00 1.3.1 Polar Terrestrial and Freshwater Ecosystems (Biogeochemistry, Hydrology)

Room: 518ABCChairs: Vince St. Louis and Igor Lenherr

10h00 - Net Ecosystem Exchange of Carbon Dioxide and Methane from Lakes and Wetlands in the Canadian High Arctic

V.L. St.Louis1, I. Lehnherr1, S.F. Lamoureux2, J.A. Graydon1, J.D. Barker3, C.A Emmerton1, J.L. Kirk4

1University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada2Queen's University, Kingston, Canada3The Ohio State University, Columbus, USA4Environment Canada, Burlington, Canada

Human activities have elevated global atmospheric concentrations of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) to levels that have resulted in an unequivocal and unprecedented warming of the Earth's climate system. This is especially true in the high Arctic, where in the past century average annual temperatures have increased at almost twice the global rate. Current climate models predict that in certain regions of the Canadian Arctic, by 2100, autumn/winter temperatures will increase by up to 9°C, while annual precipitation will likely rise by 35%. Such warming and wetting is anticipated to result in permafrost degradation and glacial melt, increased surface runoff, pond formation and/or drying, and increased vegetation growth and productivity on landscapes. Freshwater lakes, ponds, wetlands, and streams can also be relatively productive systems in the high Arctic, and provide valuable resources to many organisms, including fish, birds, mammals and humans. However, very little is known about current carbon cycling in them, and how climate change will impact their overall net productivity. Hence, since 2005, we have been monitoring numerous freshwater systems in Quttinirpaaq National Park on northern Ellesmere Island, as well as at Cape Bounty, Melville Island, in Nunavut, Canada, for general water quality (including pH, conductivity, concentrations of nutrients, oxygen and contaminants, etc.), as well as rates of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 and CH4 as a measure of autotrophy/heterotrophy. NEE was quantified 2-7 times a week using dissolved concentrations of CO2 and CH4 measured in surface waters, and wind speeds to calculate gas transfer velocities (k). The volume of ebullition fluxes of CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere from some Arctic aquatic systems was also quantified, using inverted-funnel bubble traps and concentrations of CO2 and CH4 in freshly collected bubbles probed biweekly from sediments. Our research revealed that Arctic wetland ponds were extremely productive during summer, constantly fixing CO2 via photosynthesis such that there was a net uptake of atmospheric CO2 into the ponds. However, wetland ponds were large sources of CH4 to the atmosphere due to anaerobic decomposition of rich organic matter in sediments. The larger and colder lakes that we studied in the high Arctic were not as productive as the wetlands, with dissolved CO2 concentrations in near equilibrium with the atmosphere. They were, however, small sources of CH4 to the atmosphere just following ice out, or when advective deep-water mixing occurred. Arctic streams, on the other hand, constantly outgassed CO2, but not CH4, to the atmosphere. Such new and comprehensive measurements, at some of the most northerly landscapes ever studied, are essential to determine if high Arctic freshwater systems are currently in a state of net primary productivity or respiration, whether future warming will result in positive or negative feedbacks of carbon GHGs to the atmosphere, and therefore what role Arctic aquatic ecosystems will play in future trajectories of climate change.

10h15 - Seasonal Patterns of Carbon Dioxide and Water Fluxes in Three Representative Tundra Ecosystems in Northern Alaska During the
International Polar Year and Beyond

E.S. Euskirchen1, M.S. Bret-Harte1, G.J. Scott1, C. Edgar2, G.R. Shaver

1Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks2The Ecosystems Center, Marine Biological Laboratory

Understanding the carbon dioxide and water fluxes in the Arctic is essential for accurate assessment and prediction of the responses of these ecosystems to climate change. In the Arctic, there have been relatively few studies of net CO2, water, and energy exchange using micrometeorological methods due to the difficulty of performing these measurements in cold, remote regions. When these measurements are performed, they are usually collected only during the short summer growing season. During the International Polar Year (IPY), we established eddy covariance flux towers as part of the Arctic Observing Network (AON) in three representative Alaska tundra ecosystems (heath tundra, tussock tundra, and wet sedge tundra). We have now collected CO2, water, and energy flux data continuously for over four years. In all ecosystems, peak CO2 uptake occurred during July, with accumulations of ∼51 - 95 g C m-2 during June - August. The timing of the switch from CO2 source to sink in the spring appears to be regulated by the number of growing degree days early in the season, indicating that warmer springs may promote increased net CO2 uptake. However, this increased uptake in the spring may be lost through warmer temperatures in the late growing season that promote respiration, if this respiration is not impeded by large amounts of precipitation or cooler temperatures. Net CO2 accumulation during the growing season was generally lost through respiration during the snow covered months of September -May, turning the ecosystems into net sources of CO2 over the four-year measurement period. The water balance from June to August at the three ecosystems was variable, with the most variability observed in the heath tundra, and the least in the tussock tundra. These findings underline the importance of collecting data over the full annual cycle and across multiple types of tundra ecosystems in order to come to a more complete understanding of CO2 and water fluxes in the Arctic. Furthermore, while the IPY has ended, these measurements have continued, with the hope that eventually we can reach a better understanding of these fluxes at decadal time scales under a changing climate.

10h30 -  Net Ecosystem Production on High Arctic Semi-Desert and Wetland Landscapes, Northern Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada

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C.A. Emmerton, V.L. St. Louis

1University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada

Climate warming has progressed two to three times faster in Arctic regions compared to the rest of the world. Accelerated warming in the Arctic has resulted in many environmental responses including declining sea ice coverage and extended growing seasons. Environmental change is expected to accelerate further as global carbon emissions grow, with some climate models predicting increases in air temperatures of up to 8°C and precipitation increases of up to 30% in the Arctic by 2100. A warmer and wetter climate in Canada's high Arctic is expected to cause landscape-level shifts in vegetation from semi-desert to more productive tundra vegetation. However, very little is known about current carbon cycling and the processes that affect net ecosystem production (NEP) in the high Arctic. NEP is defined as the difference between CO2 release via ecosystem respiration (ER) and CO2 uptake by gross ecosystem productivity (GEP), establishing if ecosystems are in a state of net autotrophy or heterotrophy.

As part of the International Polar Year program, we have deployed two eddy covariance (EC) flux towers to quantify growing season NEP near Lake Hazen in Quttinirpaaq National Park, Ellesmere Island, the most northerly site ever studied (82°N). One flux tower measures NEP of a dry cryptogamic-Dryas semi-desert landscape, whereas the other flux tower measures NEP of a Carex meadow wetland fed primarily by runoff from snow and permafrost melt. The EC flux towers are equipped with both open- and closed-path infrared gas analyzers integrated with three-dimensional sonic anemometers and other meteorological sensors. Because of 24-hour daylight during the growing season at our site, ER was independently measured biweekly at several sites at the semi-desert and wetland using a portable photosynthesis system equipped with a dark soil flux chamber.

Mean growing season NEP at the wetland (0.98 ± 1.59 µmol m-2 s-1) was approximately seven times higher than at the semi-desert site (0.14 ± 0.16 µmol m-2 s-1). Although NEP rates were lower at our wetland site compared to wetlands in the lower arctic (e.g., 64°N), mean daily carbon accumulation at our wetland site (1.86 ± 1.90 gC m-2) was similar because of continuous daylight there. Total carbon accumulation at the semi-desert site was lowest in 2009 compared to other years because of substantially lower snow pack accumulation before the growing season and resulting desiccation of soils through the summer. Dark ER rates were low at the semi-desert site (0.61 ± 0.22 µmol m-2 s-1) and increased positively with vegetation cover, soil temperature and moisture. Dark ER rates were 5-6 times higher at the wetland site (3.23 ± 0.73 µmol m-2 s-1) compared to the semi-desert site. Dark ER rates at the wetland decreased over the summer as primary production slowed and anoxia progressed as soils became inundated with melt water. Water, and nutrients it delivers, is an important resource in the dry Arctic, and our results suggest that warming and wetting of this region will result in a greener landscape, a trend certain long term vegetation analyses in the Park are showing.

10h45 - Multiscale Soil Carbon Distribution in Two Sub-Arctic Landscapes

A.A.J. Wayolle1, P.A. Wookey1, C.A. Wilson1, M. Williams2

1University of Stirling, Stirling, United Kingdom2University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

In recent years, concern has grown over the consequences of global warming. The arctic region is thought to be particularly vulnerable to increasing temperatures, and warming is occurring here substantially more rapidly than at lower latitudes. For the terrestrial Arctic, large datasets are generated by remote sensing of above ground variables, with an emphasis on vegetation properties, and, by association, carbon fluxes. However, the terrestrial component of the C cycle remains poorly quantified and the belowground distribution and stocks of soil C can not be quantified directly by remote sensing. The principal objective of this project is to provide a critical evaluation of methods used to link soil C stocks and fluxes at the usual scales spanned by the field surveys (centimetre to kilometre) and remote sensing surveys (kilometre to hundreds of kilometres). The soil C distribution of two sub-arctic sites in contrasting climatic, landscape/geomorphologic and vegetation settings has been described and analysed. The transition between birch forest and tundra heath in the Abisko (Swedish Lapland) field site, and the transition between mire and birch forest in the Kevo (Finnish Lapland) field site span several vegetation categories and landscape contexts.

The natural variability of below-ground C stocks (excluding coarse roots > 2 mm diameter), at scales from the centimetre to the kilometre scale, is high: 0.01 to 18.8 kg C m-2 in a 2.5 km2 area of Abisko. The depths of the soil profiles and the soil C stocks are not directly linked to either vegetation categories or Leaf Area Index, thus vegetation properties are not a straightforward proxy for soil C distribution. When mapping soil or vegetation categories at large scales, it is usually necessary to aggregate several vegetation or soil categories to simplify the output (both for mapping and for modelling). Using this approach, an average value of 2.3 kg C m-2 was derived both for soils beneath treeless areas and forest understorey. This aggregated value is potentially misleading, however, because there is significant skew resulting from inclusion of exposed ridges (with very low soil C stocks) in the 'treeless' category. Furthermore, if birch trees colonise tundra heath and other 'open' plant communities in the coming decades there will likely be substantial shifts in soil C stocks, both due to direct climate effects on decomposition, but also due to changes in above- and below-ground C inputs (both quantity and quality) and possibly changes in so-called root 'priming' effects on the decomposition of existing organic matter. The heterogeneity of soil properties, moisture and temperature regimes and vegetation cover in ecotone areas means that responses to climate change will differ across these landscapes. Any exercise in upscaling results from field survey has to indicate the heterogeneity of vegetation and soil categories to guide soil sampling and modelling of C cycle processes in the Arctic.

11h00 -  Identifying Nitrogen Limitations to Carbon Storage in Various Types of Arctic Tundra (Hornsund, Southwest Spitsbergen)

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G. Skrzypek1, B. Wojtun2, D. Richter3, A. Samecka-Cymerman2, P.F. Grierson1

1The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Australia2The University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw, Poland3The Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Wroclaw, Poland

Arctic and subarctic regions play key roles in the global carbon balance between the atmosphere and biosphere. In cold climates, biological fixation of carbon is very slow, but turnover time is also extremely long owing to slow rates of organic matter decomposition. Therefore, once carbon is captured, it is likely to be stored in the soil and sediments for millennia. In addition to low temperatures, deficits in nitrogen impose strong limitations on biological carbon fixation in arctic ecosystems; thus, knowledge of pools and fluxes of nitrogen can help determine the significance of arctic ecosystems to the global carbon balance. Hence, we sought to characterize the main sources of available nitrogen (e.g., biological nitrogen fixation, atmospheric deposition, bird droppings, and organic matter mineralization) across various types of tundra.

The project was conducted in Fuglebekken, an experimental catchment located in the Hornsund Fjord (Spitsbergen, 77°N 15°E). The catchment has a well-described flora and we have also previously mapped tundra formations for this area. A comprehensive sampling program conducted in summer of 2011 identified 15 plant species from eight different types of tundra (~250 samples), which were collected for chemical and stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis. We also analyzed the nitrogen isotope composition of soil, bird faeces, algae, snow and rain samples (~100 samples).

The stable nitrogen isotope composition (δ15N) of plants varied widely, but vascular and non-vascular species showed similar ranges (e.g., 15N of the vascular plant Salix polaris ranged from -6.0 to +12.0‰, while δ15N for the non-vascular plant Sanionia uncinata ranged from -6.0 to +11.6‰). Both vascular and non-vascular plants responded consistently to changes in nitrogen source. For example, plant δ15N signatures were most enriched closer to bird colonies (Alle alle). While the δ15N of Sanionia and Salix were highly correlated (R²=0.95, p<0.001), Sanionia was enriched in δ15N by ~20%, compared to Salix and had much less variable the foliar N%. The obtained results allowed estimation of the contribution of nitrogen to different types of tundra in the studied area.

In contrast to the δ15N data, the stable carbon isotope composition (δ13C) of plants varied over a narrow range, which reflects differences in water availability and temperature among sites due to different growing season length, topographic location, and duration of snow cover. The range of δ13C variation was similar for vascular and non-vascular plants (i.e., -31.9 to -27.8‰ for Salix, -32.8 to -26.7‰ for Sanionia). The variation within each species depended on environmental conditions at the micro-scale. For example, Salix growing on rocky edges of polygons of structural soils was subject to high water stress and showed δ13C values 0.3 to 0.6‰ higher than Salix growing in the centers of polygons with a deeper organic soil.

Viewed together, our data shows that bird faeces contribute to enhanced nitrogen availability and thus increased productivity of many tundra sites. We speculate that reduced Alle alle colonies on Spitsbergen in response to climate warming may thus result in reduced carbon storage in tundra ecosystems.

Acknowledgments: study funded by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education, grant NN304410139.

11h15 -  High Arctic Tundra Response to Acute Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition in Svalbard

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S. Choudhary1, A. Blaud1, A.M. Osborn2, G.K. Phoenix1

1University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK2University of Hull, Hull, UK

Arctic ecosystems are threatened by pollution from acute, extreme atmospheric N deposition events. Such events can deposit ~40% (perhaps reaching 80%) of annual atmospheric N input as acidic rainfall (pH 4) in less than a week. These events are a result of polluted air masses from the mid-latitude travelling to the high-latitude with minimal dispersal. The aim of our research is to investigate the fate and impacts of acute atmospheric N deposition upon plants, microorganisms and soil biogeochemical processes in the high Arctic tundra. This research is part of a multidisciplinary EU project, 'NSINK' (, which studies the sources, sinks and impacts of atmospheric N deposition in the high Arctic.

In this study, since the summer of 2009, acute N deposition events have been simulated using a plot scale N-addition experiment on tundra at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard (78°55'N; 11°56'E). The vegetation at our site is dominated by bryophytes and Salix polaris. 15N-labelled amendments were made with 15NH415NO3 during 2010 at rates of 0.4, 4 and 12 kg N ha-1 yr-1. The fate of different species of reactive N, (NO3- and NH4+) was also assessed by N-addition of Na15NO3 and 15NH4Cl (4 kg N ha-1 yr-1) to separate plots.

Soil, plants and soil leachate were sampled through the summer of 2010 and 2011 to study the short (2010) and mid-term (2011) impacts and fate of the pollutant N on tundra N pools and fluxes. Plant responses have also been assessed through field surveys, assessment of impacts on physiological responses such as photosynthetic activity using chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm), phosphomonoesterase activity, Normalised Difference Vegetation index (NDVI) and impacts on N-fixation by acetylene reduction assay.

From the results obtained so far, short-term 15N dynamics in the tundra ecosystem shows highest N enrichment in non-vascular plants, followed by vascular plants and lastly by the organic and mineral layer of the soil. Among the N species, NO3- was utilised by all the plants species, whereas NH4+ was mostly utilised by non-vascular plants. Chlorophyll fluorescence data suggests that even if such N deposition events are very short lived, they can improve the photosynthetic capacity (Fv/Fm ratios) of the high Arctic vascular plants by 15-20%.

It is apparent that even these very short lived (and previously overlooked) extreme pollution events can impact both plants and tundra ecosystem N status.

11h30 - Impact of Active Layer Detachments on Carbon Exchange in a High-Arctic Ecosystem, Cape Bounty, Nunavut, Canada

A. Beamish, A. Neil, I. Wagner, N.A. Scott

1Queen's University, Kingston, Canada

High Arctic ecosystems are experiencing some of the earliest and most extreme changes in climate including increases in both temperature and precipitation leading to a deepening and destabilization of the active layer. This destabilization of shallow slopes can lead to disturbances such as active layer detachments (ALD's), which could further alter soil temperature and moisture regimes, potentially releasing carbon (C) and nutrients previously unavailable to soil microbes. We explored the impact of ALD's on carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange at the Cape Bounty Arctic Watershed Observatory on Melville Island, Canada over two growing seasons. CO2 exchange was measured approximately every five to nine days across a disturbance gradient within ALD's during both growing seasons for a total of five sampling day in 2009 and nine sampling days in 2010. CO2 exchange was measured using 20cm diameter transparent chambers equipped with a Carbocap GMP343 CO2 sensor and Humicap HM70 temperature/relative humidity sensor (Vaisala Corp.).

Based on static chamber C flux measurements during the growing seasons of 2009 and 2010, we found that moderately disturbed sites are fertile islands and were net C sinks (-6.44gC m-2 season-1, -8.21gC m-2 season-1, respectively). The highly disturbed sites however were net sources of CO2 in both seasons (3.01gC m-2 season-1, 30.01gC m-2 season-1, respectively). Control sites in 2009 represented a net C sink (-6.48gC m-2 season-1) while in 2010 they represented a net C source (16.75gC m-2 season-1). Overall, the formation of ALD's led to highly disturbed areas (roughly 40% of the area of an ALD) becoming C sources, but appeared to enhance C uptake in moderately disturbed areas.

These findings have important implications if temperature and moisture continue to increase and lead to an increase in disturbance frequency. Not only could these disturbances become net C sources, but they could also liberate older C previously unavailable for microbial activity. Quantifying the impact of active layer detachments is crucial to furthering our understanding of interactions and feedbacks between terrestrial ecosystems in the arctic and the climate system.

11h45 -  Methylmercury Cycling in High Arctic Wetlands: What are the Controls on Methylmercury Production?

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I. Lehnherr1, V.L. St. Louis2, J.L. Kirk3, C.A. Emmerton2, J.D. Barker4

1University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada2University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada3Environment Canada, Burlington, Canada4Ohio State University, Columbus, USA

How environmental and climate change will impact the biogeochemical cycles of elements and toxins such as mercury is difficult to predict at this time because we often lack the required mechanistic understanding. Some freshwater fish in the Canadian Arctic contain levels of methylmercury (MeHg) that pose health risks to Inuit peoples harvesting these species as traditional food. However, the sources of MeHg to Arctic freshwater ecosystems are still unidentified, and while wetlands are known sources of MeHg in temperate regions, their importance to Hg methylation in the Arctic is unclear. The objective of this study was to quantify MeHg production in wetland ponds near Lake Hazen (81°N) in the Canadian High Arctic and determine the biogeochemical controls on MeHg production to understand how MeHg exposure in these sensitive ecosystems might change in the near future. To quantify net in-pond production of MeHg during the summer seasons of 2005, 2007 and 2008, mass-balance budgets were constructed for two wetland ponds (appropriately named Ponds 1 and 2) by measuring external MeHg inputs from atmospheric deposition, MeHg losses from photodemethylation, and changes in MeHg storage in the water column. Compared to nearby lakes, ponds (n = 16) had elvated water MeHg concentrations (0.05-1.8 ng/L) and a high proportion of total Hg in the MeHg form (4-62%), suggesting that methylation is enhanced in those systems. MeHg inputs from precipitation were small (0.026-0.051 ng/m2/d). Photodemethylation was a sink for 77-122% of MeHg produced in-pond, and was controlled by the attenuation of UV-A radiation in the water column. In-pond MeHg production ranged from 14-40 ng/m2/d in Pond 1 and 1.7-1.9 ng/m2/d in Pond 2, comparable to what has been reported for temperate lakes and wetlands. Flooding of the Pond 1 wetland in 2008 due to rising water levels in nearby Lake Hazen resulted in increased MeHg production. Additionally, potential rates of Hg(II) methylation were quantified in intact sediment cores (n = 29) from a number of ponds using Hg stable-isotope tracers to identify the factors controlling MeHg production. Potential methylation rates were high and exhibited nearly as much intra-site as inter-site variability. Sediment MeHg concentrations were significantly correlated to methylation potential and sediment total-Hg concentrations. Furthermore, pond water MeHg concentrations were positively correlated with sediment MeHg concentrations and various indicators of anaerobic microbial decomposition of organic matter (pCH4, NH4+:NO3- ratio), and negatively correlated with UV-A exposure and particulate carbon. However, no correlation with sulfate was observed in spite of the fact that sulfate-reducing bacteria have often been implicated as important methylating agents. Our results demonstrate that Arctic wetland sediments are sources of MeHg comparable to freshwater sediments in temperate latitudes and that MeHg concentrations in water are controlled by production in sediments - itself a function of anaerobic microbial activity, methylation potential and Hg(II) availability - as well as photodemethylation in the water column. Furthermore, understanding the controls on MeHg production will allow for improved predictions of how environmental and climate change will impact MeHg cycling and exposure in Arctic freshwater ecosystems.

10h00 - 12h00 1.3.2 Polar Marine Ecosystems (Fish, Seabirds and Mammals)

Room: 519ABChair: Mark Hindell

10h00 - Arctic Fronts in the Norwegian and Barents Seas and their Biological Influence

K.F. Drinkwater1

1Institute of Marine Research

The IPY Project NESSAR (Norwegian Ecosystem Studies of Subarctic and Arctic Regions) carried out interdisciplinary field studies during 2007 and 2008 on the Jan Mayen Front in the Norwegian Sea and the Polar Front in the Barents Sea, both of which separate Atlantic and Arctic waters. The investigations included the physical dynamics of the fronts, as well as the structure and function of the associated marine biology from their biogeochemistry and nutrient dynamics through plankton ecology up to fish. In addition to CTD measurements of the larger scale water mass characteristics, data were also collected on small-scale turbulence and associated mixing using a microstructure profiler. Autonomous gliders, the first ever deployed by Norway, provided further detailed information on the physics as well as plankton biomass distributions. The fronts in both regions exhibit strong horizontal gradients in temperature and salinity but weak density gradients owing to density compensation of the water mass characteristics on both sides of the fronts. Intense interleaving of the water masses occurs at the front along isopycnals resulting in large variability in the vertical profiles of the temperature-salinity characteristics. Although there are elevated turbulence levels in the vicinity of the front owing to both current shear and double diffusion, turbulence levels are still relatively weak and not strong enough to create strong vertical mixing. As a result nutrient levels in the near surface layers remain low through the summer following the spring bloom. Measurements using either the Fast Repetition Rate Flourometer or from satellite imagery show no evidence of enhanced primary production or high phytoplankton biomass in the front in either the Barents Sea or the Norwegian Sea. Small zooplankton appear to be more prominent at the front and large zooplankton away from the front based on measurements in the Barents Sea. Capelin show a similar distribution with small individuals in the front and larger capelin away from the front, mainly in the Arctic waters. The diets of fish caught near the fronts (herring in the Norwegian Sea and capelin in the Barents Sea) will also be discussed relative to the local zooplankton communities and their distributions. Comparisons between the two regions as well as with other Nordic Seas fronts will also be presented.

10h15 -  Population Structure, Growth and Diet of the myctophid Krefftichthys anderssoni (Lönnberg, 1905) in the Scotia Sea (Southern

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S. Lourenço1,4, M.A. Collins2,3, R. Shreeve2, C.A. Assis4, M. Belchier2, R.P. Vieira1, J.L. Watkins2, J.C. Xavier1,2

1Institute of Marine Research, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal2British Antarctic Survey, NERC, Cambridge, UK3Government of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Stanley, Falkland Islands, UK4Oceanography Centre, University of Lisbon, Faculty of Sciences, Lisboa, Portugal

The myctophid fish play an important ecological role in Polar Regions, including in the Scotia Sea (Southern Ocean). Here, the myctophids are thought to represent the major alternative to the Antarctic food web based on krill, being the link between the first order consumers, mainly meso-zooplancton, and the top predators such as squid, Patagonian toothfish, king penguins and macaroni penguins, grey-headed albatrosses and Antarctic fur seals. Krefftichthys anderssoni is known to inhabit the mesopelagic zone around the Antarctic Polar Front (APF). Despite its importance in this regional ecosystem of the Southern Ocean, the information on its population structure, growth and diet is scarce. In this study, using opening and closing nets and length-frequency analysis, we provide the latest results of seasonal, regional and bathymetric patterns in the population structure of K. anderssoni in the Scotia Sea, from various UK cruises carried out during the International Polar Year (IPY). The sampled specimens (11 to 76 mm standard length (SL)) had a polymodal length frequency distribution indicative of three age groups. Larval K. anderssoni, sampled with plankton nets, were caught throughout the year in the coastal waters of South Georgia and the size frequency of their catches suggest hatching in May at around 5 mm SL, with the larvae reaching 17 mm SL the following March. The von Bertalanffy growth rate determined from length frequency information both from larvae and adults is K=1.05 year-1. The younger age-groups were identified in the APF and South Georgia, indicating that K. anderssoni is highly dependent on the Antarctic Polar front and the coastal waters of South Georgia. K. anderssoni feeds mainly of copepods and euphausiids, Rhincalanus gigas, Calanoides acutus and Thysanoessa spp, with the importance of each diet item taxa being dependent of season. Our results show that, as a sub-antarctic species, K. anderssoni life cycle has characteristics of a temperate waters myctophid, such as having ashort life cycle, similar to that of other myctophids' of temperate waters Diaphus dumerilii. K. anderssoni has features common of endemic Antarctic species such as a long larval stage with an approximately 10 months, almost a third of its entire life cycle. Another important feature of the life cycle of this species is the fact that it is strongly connected with the intermediate waters (200 - 700 m) of the coastal region of South Georgia and the Oceanic region of the APF as evidenced by the population structure as well as by the diet composition. The comparison of our results with other myctophids life cycle show that K. anderssoni is biogeographically dependent of the APF, and its transition position on the Southern Ocean ecosystem imprints in its life cycle both temperate and polar life cycle features and the variability associated to its position possibly induce the variability on the species population structure.

* Abstract Submitted to the Polar Marine Ecosystems: Status and Changes parallel session under Area 1 and Area 2 theme sessions

10h30 -  What do Narwhals (Monodon monoceros) Eat? Does Location Matter?

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C. Watt1, S.H. Ferguson1,2

1University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada2Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Winnipeg, Canada

Narwhals (Monodon monoceros) are top predators in Arctic ecosystems, yet relatively little is known about their diet. Previous studies have investigated diet primarily through stomach content analysis, which can be biased because of varying digestion rates and only provides a snapshot of what the whale has recently consumed. Chemical signatures, such as those from stable isotope and fatty acid analyses of animal tissues, can provide a longer term dietary signature of the primary prey items which were digested. There are considered to be two discrete narwhal populations, the northern Hudson Bay and high Arctic populations. We investigated foraging in the Northern Hudson Bay population and a subset of the high Arctic population known as the Eclipse Sound stock, which are spatially and genetically distinct narwhal groups. The summering grounds for these groups are bathymetrically diverse, with the Eclipse Sound stock inhabiting deeper areas. Given the habitat differences, we hypothesized diet would differ between the narwhal groups and that dietary differences between narwhal sexes may exist, particularly in Eclipse Sound where males may exploit deeper environments more efficiently than females given their larger size and reduced parental investment. Narwhal skin and blubber samples dating back to the 1970s were analyzed for stable isotope and fatty acid signatures and were used to assess spatial and temporal patterns in diet. Potential prey species, such as Arctic and polar cod, sculpins, Arctic squid, and Greenland halibut, were collected in each location and isotope and fatty acid signatures from whole homogenized fish and invertebrates were analyzed and utilized in combination with narwhal signatures to determine narwhal prey composition. Multiple discriminant analysis determined if chemical signatures differed between narwhal groups or among decades. Chemical signatures significantly differed between the Eclipse Sound stock and the northern Hudson Bay population, suggesting differences in dietary constituents or relative contributions of specific dietary components. Signatures also differed between male and female narwhals from the Eclipse Sound stock, but there were no differences between sexes in the northern Hudson Bay population, suggesting there may be increased habitat segregation between sexes when narwhals occupy deeper habitats. A temporal change in diet was supported by both fatty acid and isotopic signatures in the northern Hudson Bay population, but no temporal difference was indicated for the Eclipse Sound stock. The northern Hudson Bay population occupies lower latitudes and may have experienced more stochastic ice conditions in recent years resulting in these differences. Primary prey signatures were used in principal component analysis and stable isotope mixing models to provide both qualitative and quantitative estimates of dietary composition. Overall, narwhals may rely on a broader array of prey than originally thought, which may enhance their adaptability to a changing Arctic environment.

10h45 - Shifting Prey in a Melting Arctic: Breeding Seabirds Adapt to the Loss of Summer Ice

G.J. Divoky1, B.B. Harter2

1Friends of Cooper Island, Seattle, USA2University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada

While recent decadal-scale decreases in the extent of Arctic sea ice in summer are well documented there are few biological data sets monitoring marine ecosystem response to the ice retreat. Since 1975 the breeding biology of Black Guillemots (Cepphus grylle), an ice-associated diving seabird, has been studied on Cooper Island, Alaska, 35 km east of Point Barrow. Black Guillemots are apex predators that, like all seabirds, are sensitive to annual variation in the marine ecosystems within foraging range of their colonies, especially when breeding adults are provisioning young. On Cooper Island guillemot nestlings are present in nest cavities from approximately 20 July to 10 September, when sea ice retreats from the Alaskan coast. Monitoring guillemot prey type and nestling growth from 1975 to 2011 has provided valuable information on annual variability in the type and availability of forage fish populations within the 20-30 km foraging range of the guillemots. Changes occurring within the foraging range have been extreme, as distance from the Cooper Island colony to the pack ice on 15 August averaged <25 km from 1975-2002 but increased to an average of >100 km from 2003-2011.
Reductions in annual sea ice extent were associated with decadal-scale prey switching by parent Black Guillemots. When sea ice was typically present within the foraging range from 1975 to 2002, guillemots provisioned nestlings almost exclusively with Arctic Cod (Boreogadus saida), a species associated with the underside of ice and waters colder than 3°C. Starting in 2003, the frequency of benthic prey, primarily Four-horned Sculpin (Myoxocephalus quadricornis), in the diet increased, correlated both seasonally and annually, with increasing distance to the pack ice. Sculpin now are the primary prey for the majority of the nestling period and increasing in importance as the timing of annual ice retreat advances and distance to the ice increases. Until 2011, the appearance of sculpin in the chicks' diet was associated with colony-wide decreases in nestling growth rates and increased nestling death. In 2011, however, over half of the nesting pairs maintained high nestling growth rates when prey switched from Arctic Cod to sculpin in early August. Nesting failures associated with a switch to sculpin in earlier years may have been due to low sculpin abundance or availability, caused by unfavorable oceanographic conditions, including low water temperatures. In 2011, after the switch to sculpin, growth rates of nestlings decreased on days of decreased water temperature. The ability of some, but not all, guillemot pairs to maintain nestling growth after the prey switch in 2011apparently reflects individual variation in adaptability to short-term changes in prey type. High breeding success in 2011 demonstrates that Black Guillemots can persist in arctic Alaska despite the loss of summer ice by switching from ice-associated prey to benthic prey. The ongoing studies at the Cooper Island colony should assist in monitoring anticipated northward expansion of subarctic fish into the Beaufort Sea.

11h00 -  How to Forage in a Patchy Environment? - The Aggregative Response of the Little Auk (Alle alle) to its Prey over Different Spatial

 View Frostbyte

J.E.H. Hovinen1,2,3, J. Welcker1, A. Rabindranath4, J. Berge2,5, H. Steen1

1Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromsø, Norway2The University Centre in Svalbard, Longyearbyen, Norway3The University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway4The University of St Andrews, St Andrews, UK5Akvaplan-niva, Tromsø, Norway

The little auk (Alle alle), a small seabird living in the Arctic, is a central place forager and feeds primarily on zooplankton (especially Calanus spp.). It likely relies on energy-rich and abundant prey within a commutable distance from the nesting site in order to raise its chick. The continuously changing and possibly unpredictable spatial pattern of its prey may limit the foraging efficiency of the little auk and make the location of prey aggregations difficult. According to optimal foraging, the little auk should search for the patches where the rate of energy intake is maximized compared to the other patches. Prior studies indicate that the little auk prefers Arctic water masses with lipid-rich Calanus glacialis and C. hyperboreus compared to Atlantic water masses inhabited by less energy-rich C. finmarchicus. In addition, little auks have been found to aggregate in stratified waters where copepods concentrate closer to the surface. In the present study, we investigate the aggregative response of the little auk to its prey over different spatial scales. Specifically, our aim is to examine on which scale and by which means little auk perceives information on the suitability of a given patch within the framework of optimal foraging. The at-sea distribution of little auks was obtained by ship-based counts and the prey abundance was estimated using an EK60-echo sounder. Additional net-hauls were taken to help the differentiation between meso- and macrozooplankton. Bird recordings and acoustic surveys were run simultaneously and continuously while on the transect lines. Other factors possibly affecting the aggregative response of the little auk were selected on the basis of their biological relevance. These were bathymetry (BAT) and sea-surface temperature (SST). Data was gathered at three separate locations on Spitsbergen, Svalbard during the four consecutive years (2006-2007 and 2009-2010). Analyses so far indicate that the little auk uses large scale horizontal information i.e. SST and BAT to navigate within the patchy environment. At smaller scales the local density and vertical distribution of prey becomes important. These results support the earlier findings that the aggregative response of the little auk was linked to specific oceanographic features, especially SST, but show in addition that the little auk has an ability to find profitable prey patches even at smaller scales. The forage-pattern of the little auk with several dives during a few hours stay at-sea supports the observation. Thus the availability of prey within a patch per se is not the only factor that matters, but also how the prey is distributed within the patch. The predicted climate change is likely to alter the distribution of water masses and associated prey organisms in the Arctic, which may have profound implications for the foraging efficiency of the little auks.

11h15 - The Arctic Ocean Tracking Network: Movement and Behavior of Fish and Marine Mammals in Relation to Oceanographic Data across the
Canadian Arctic

N.E. Hussey1, T.A. Dick2, K.J. Hedges3, S. Vagle4, S.H. Ferguson3, A.T. Fisk1

1University of Windsor/GLIER, Windsor, Canada2University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada3Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Winnipeg, Canada4Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Sidney, Canada

The Ocean Tracking Network (OTN), a Canadian led initiative, was established in 2009 to monitor fish and marine mammal movements in the world's oceans given concerns over global climate change. The Canadian OTN project includes three arenas, the Arctic, Atlantic and Pacific. For Arctic waters, there is limited data on the movements of polar fish and marine mammals, but with decreasing ice cover, increasing fishing pressure and the potential for large-scale commercial fisheries, these data are a priority for OTN and for future Arctic management strategies. The overriding aim of the Arctic OTN is to gain a combined understanding of fish/marine mammal movements and behavior in conjunction with oceanographic data under changing climatic conditions. Arctic OTN is also involved in extensive telemetry equipment testing and development in polar waters. Ongoing research initiated in 2010 is focused in two main regions; Cumberland Sound (mid Arctic) and Lancaster Sound (High Arctic). In Cumberland Sound, long-term telemetry studies are underway on Greenland Halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides), an important commercial species caught in both traditional Inuit winter fisheries and developing summer commercial fisheries. VEMCO receivers (VR2W 69 and VMT) were strategically deployed in both fishing grounds and acoustic tags internally inserted in Greenland halibut and principal by-catch species, Arctic skate (Amblyraja hyperborea) and Greenland sharks (Somniosus microcephalus). In addition, satellite tags were attached to all three fish species (pop-off archival tags (PSAT)) and to ring seal (Pusa hispida; continuous transmitting tags) to gain insight in to fine scale vertical movements and diving behavior, respectively. In 2011, in addition to telemetry work, intensive oceanographic fieldwork was undertaken, including the deployment of several fixed moorings to monitor temperature, dissolved oxygen, salinity, pH, CO2 and current profiles over a 12 month cycle. CPOD and AURALS were also deployed, boat based surveys conducted and genetic samples collected to examine beluga (Delphinapterus leucas), bowhead (Balaena mysticetus) and killer whale (Orcinus orca)) interactions, movement and population structure. In Lancaster Sound (Allen Bay), work in 2010 examined fine scale movements and interactions of Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) and fourhorn (Myoxocephalus quadricornis) and shorthorn (Myoxocephalus scorpius) sculpin using the VEMCO VPS fine scale tracking system. In 2012, the Arctic cod tagging program will be extended to monitor fine scale fish movements within selected bays while VEMCO receiver lines (VR2W 69/180 and VR4) will be deployed to determine the extent of large scale Arctic cod movements through the Barrow Strait and Lancaster Sound region. The first fixed VR4 receiver line was deployed in this region in 2011 and Greenland sharks were tagged (acoustic and PSATs) to examine Arctic wide movements of this large marine apex predator. Equipment testing has involved the first ever deployment of deep water telemetry receivers (VMTs at ∼1000m), the long-term deployment of receivers under ice and the establishment of extensive 12 month acoustic tag range tests at different depth stations. We will provide an overview of the Arctic OTN project and present preliminary results from ongoing fish telemetry and satellite tag studies, oceanographic work and equipment testing.

11h30 - A Benthic Hotspot on the Canadian Beaufort Shelf: the Easternmost Outpost for a Declining Grey Whale Food Resource

K. Conlan1, B. Williams2, E. Hendrycks1, A. Aitken3, S. Blasco4

1Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa, Canada2Institute of Ocean Sciences, Sidney, Canada3University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada4Geological Survey of Canada, Dartmouth, Canada

The key summer food resource of the North Pacific grey whale (Eschrichtius robustus) is dense beds of benthic macrofauna dominated by amphipod crustaceans (mainly Family Ampeliscidae). In these so-called 'hotspots', the amphipods pack the seafloor with their self-built tubes from where they filter feed on suspended carbon. The hotspots occur along the migration path of the grey whales and are most extensive on the shelves of the northern Bering and Chukchi Seas, where pelagic-benthic coupling is strong. The largest of the Bering Sea amphipod beds (in the Chirikov Basin) is currently dwindling, and grey whales are now foraging further north. We have discovered an eastward extension of this network of dense amphipod beds at Cape Bathurst on the Canadian Beaufort Shelf. Although the bed is about 1100 km from the nearest Chukchi bed, it too is visited by summering grey whales. As part of the CASES and Northern Coastal Marine Program we collected 538 0.25 m² box cores on CCGS Nahidik, Laurier and Amundsen cruises on the Canadian Beaufort Shelf over 2002-9 and identified to lowest taxonomic level all macrofauna >0.5 mm. Sediments were analysed for grain size and total carbon and nitrogen. Community patterns were analysed by standard multivariate methods and correlated with environmental variables. The dominant ampeliscid was the highly productive Ampelisca macrocephala, the same species that dominates the grey whale feeding grounds in the Bering and Chukchi Seas. To define the hotspot associated with Cape Bathurst, we used ampeliscid density >100 individuals m-2 as this is the density found at apparent whale feeding pits discovered on the eastern edge of Mackenzie Trough using multibeam sonar. The bed occurs in water depths of 10-120 m and is estimated to be at least 27 x 10³ km² in area. Macrofaunal densities reach 18,000 individuals m-2 and 272 g m-2 wet weight with greatest numbers at the eastern shelf break near the cape. Bed shape roughly mirrors the area of seafloor affected by wind-driven upwelling of nutrient-rich, Pacific-origin water. Possible constraints to bed size are availability of sandy sediment; ice scour intensity; timing, frequency and duration of upwelling favourable wind and ice motion; and predictability and intensity of pelagic-benthic coupling. All of these constraints are subject to climate forcing. We conclude that at this standing stock, this hotspot could be used temporarily by grey whales and suggest that its use by these whales could grow if summer open water periods extend and the Bering Sea amphipod beds continue to decline.

11h45 - Reading between the Lines: Bivalve Growth Rate and Isotopic Variability Across the Barents Sea Polar Front

M. Carroll1, W. Ambrose1,2, W. Locke2, S. Ryan2, B. Johnson2

1Akvaplan-niva, Tromsø, Norway2Bates College, Lewiston, Maine, USA

Analysis of bivalve shell increments provides a means to reconstruct long-term patterns in growth histories and assess factors that regulate marine ecosystems, while tissue stable isotopes are indicators of food supply and trophic dynamics. We examined shell growth patterns and tissue stable isotopic composition (δ13C and δ15N) of the Hairy cockle (Clinocardium ciliatum) in the northwest Barents Sea to evaluate the influence of different water masses and the polar front on growth rates and food supply and to assess the influence of climatic variability on ecological processes over decadal scales to seasonal scales. Overall shell growth rates were highest in Atlantic water, intermediate in Arctic water, and lowest at the polar front. Temporal patterns of ontogenetically-adjusted growth (SGI) were negatively correlated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), local precipitation, and ice free days. The highest growth occurred during colder periods with more sea ice, while lower growth was associated with warmer periods and less sea ice. Populations in Atlantic water were more strongly influenced by climatic variability, and environmental variables included in our analysis explained up to 64% of interannual variation in bivalve growth in the Atlantic region, 35% in the Arctic region, and 57% at the Polar Front. Samples from Polar waters had significantly higher lipid concentrations than tissues from Atlantic waters, with lipid-extracted tissues enriched in 13C up to 1‰ compared to non-extracted tissues, likely due to the presence of 13C-depleted lipids in the latter. There was a stronger and more widespread effect of lipid-extraction on tissue 13C in the spring compared to the fall. Stable isotope values of tissues in which lipids had been removed progressively increased from Arctic to Atlantic waters, with Atlantic waters enriched in δ13C by up to 2.1‰ and δ15N by 1.5‰ compared to Arctic waters. There were distinct seasonal and water mass variations in stable isotopic and C:N values, indicating both spatial and temporal variability in food supplies to the bivalves in this region. These results reveal differences in food sources and in pelagic-benthic coupling between water masses of the Barents Sea on relatively small spatial scales. These results demonstrate that integrating results of sclerochronological and stable isotopic analyses of benthic bivalves provides added insight into the ecological function of these systems when assessing possible effects of climatically driven changes in water mass distributions in the Barents Sea.

10h00 - 12h00 1.4.3 The History and Archaeology of the Arctic and Antarctic: Science, Politics, Resources and Cultural Heritage

Room: 520DChair: Julia Lajus

10h00 - A Bourgeois Milieu in the Swedish Wilderness of Sarek in the Beginning of the 20th Century

K. Granqvist

Independent scholar, Ph.D., Luleå, Sweden

Sarek is a well-known high-mountain massif in Sweden, which was explored by natural scientist Axel Hamberg in 1895-1931. The Sarek research project became famous for its ice-, glacier- and evaporations studies, and the area contains of reminiscence of ice from the last inland ice. In the research Hamberg always presented Sarek as pristine, harsh and very isolated wilderness only men with experience could enter, and it could only be reached by foot or ski, or with animal transportation such as horses or reindeers. Hamberg's presentation of Sarek though, stood in contrast to the very obvious civilisation project in Sarek at the beginning of the 20th century with construction of several research huts that had furniture, table cloths, gramophone, lace curtains in windows, parallel with him bringing along a bourgeois cuisine with goose lever, caviar, ox tongue and whiskey with him on his research trips to the area. He took his food culture and his interests with him to Sarek, and eventually he also came to bring his wife and son on his research travels to the mountain region.

It was common at the time, though, to create comfortable milieus in the Arctic, such as the mining industry did on Svalbard. It was an attempt to create a normality in the unnormality in the Arctic desert. In the case of Hamberg was it obvious that he, in Sarek, wanted to create a mirror, if not a mimetic image, of his own bourgeois home environment in Uppsala, Sweden, where he also worked as a professor. The creation of a bourgeois milieu with huts and an upper class cuisine in Sarek also meant that the transfer from his home milieu to the mountain massif area less had the feeling of transportation. The difference between his home and the circumstances of the research in Sarek became minimized, and in the end it meant that the mountain area not only got to be partly civilised, but also domesticated. The hut building project did not only result in a decreasing distance between the centre – the university and his home in Uppsala – and the periphery – Sarek –, it also meant that the border between "home" and "wilderness" got to be blurred. So the building project of huts in Sarek not only made the research observations and studies more comfortable and easier to perform, it also domesticated Sarek when it, to some degree, became 'bourgeiosed' and filled with 'civilised' items. But at the same time did Hamberg uphold the image that Sarek was a desolate and isolated wilderness since that particular representation of the high mountain area was necessary for the natural scientific studies being made there – the Sarek research still need to be presented as being done in a harsh wilderness, as well as Sarek had to be represented as such due to that research, and tourism.

The methods being used in this research project of the buildings of huts in Sarek are studies of Hamberg's field research diaries, lists of purchase and receipts.

10h15 - To be, or not to be a Northern Scientist?: The Scientists' and Explorers' Ordinance and Problems of Definition, 1925-1939

C.M. Adcock

1University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada

In 1925, the Canadian government enacted the Scientists' and Explorers' Ordinance in order to entrench sovereign claim over northern Canada and to counter American explorers' increasing encroachment upon Canadian sovereignty there. Those with scientific or exploratory aims wishing to undertake fieldwork there now required licenses to conduct such activities in the Northwest Territories, which at that time included present-day Nunavut. However, the neat categories of 'science' and 'exploration' concealed and minimized the plethora of practices and motives that operated under these titles in the interwar period. This paper investigates how and why the Canadian government, in tandem with private persons applying for licenses, came to construct definitions for the activities of science and exploration in the North between 1925 and 1939. It draws upon the archival records relating to this ordinance, which are located in the files of the Northwest Territories and Yukon Branch at the Public Archives of Canada. This paper builds upon recent work, notably by Janice Cavell, on the early twentieth-century history of northern Canadian exploration, especially regarding the relations between explorers and the federal government and their effect upon sovereignty and policy. It complements recent studies by Richard Powell and Stephen Bocking, among others, into the conduct of northern science after 1939. Finally, it mobilizes notions of 'boundary work' from scholarship on the history and sociology of science to explain the significance of the government's gravitation toward occupational definitions.

The main finding of this paper is that, in response to a series of epistemological challenges regarding the basic nature of science and exploration, the government identified the qualities of scientists and explorers with growing specificity throughout the interwar period. At first, civil servants had not defined these activities, except to state that they should not be undertaken for commercial or political ends. Within a few years, some applications for fieldwork of dubious scientific grounding and value prompted officials to devise means for ensuring that only fieldworkers with appropriate qualifications and training could secure licenses. Markers of legitimation could include personal or institutional letters of reference, indications of institutional support, or past success in similar endeavours. Civil servants were increasingly concerned that licenses not be granted to sportsmen and tourists, whom the government had come to consider unable to produce any worthwhile knowledge about the North.

By the late 1930s, the Canadian government had outlined a precise set of regulations for would-be northern scientists and explorers, with specific educational, institutional, financial, and material requirements that had to be met before licenses were granted. The slippage evident in the previous decade between the activities of science, exploration, and tourism in the North had disappeared. With precision of definition came the hardening of occupational boundaries-and, moreover, the privileging of science over exploration. However, although scientific approaches toward northern fieldwork were increasingly promoted and validated in the early twentieth century, the spirit of amateur exploration continued to infuse many such ventures. These findings further delineate and clarify the complex relationship between northern science and exploration in the interwar period.

10h30 - The Contexts of Cultural Heritage in Polar Regions: An Historic Comparative Perspective based on Three Case Studies

U.I. Gustafsson, H.R. de Haas

Arctic Centre, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands

Cultural heritage is defined as all traces of human existence having a cultural, historical or archaeological character. While usually referring to material remains such as sites, structures, buildings, artefacts and human remains in different contexts, less tangible cultural expressions are included as well (UNESCO 2003/5). Cultural heritage relates to national and international narratives, communal identities, societies and nations. While the identification, designation and management of cultural heritage is commonly defined to national borders, in the Polar Regions similar issues often becomes more complex due to their international and juridical character. Consequently cultural heritage has multiple dimensions that often extend beyond national frameworks.

Narratives of several nationalities and indigenous groups are represented in the Arctic and Antarctic in the form of physical remains of for example exploration, research, exploitation and subsistence. Moreover, many sites connect that to certain events or groups, have either been re-used over time, or their ownership changed hands in a way which links many narratives and identities to the same site: which complicates their interpretation and management.

In this presentation, the author's presents three case studies to illustrate the many issues related to the history of cultural heritage in the Arctic and Antarctic, their management, and their inert interpretative flexibility. The first two case studies illustrate how cultural heritage and their connected narratives have been perceived, used, and managed in the past. The third case study is contemporary, and shows that although more then a century has passed between the selected cases, and many political issues concerning governance in the Polar Regions have been solved, or put on ice, the same issues and interpretations are ascribed to cultural heritage sites and national narratives even today. Therefore, how, why and what we choose to manage, preserve, and protect, or perhaps not, could potentially not only change the historical value of the site, but also be regarded as deliberate acts designed to alter the sites heritage value and interpretation. This paper aims to add to ongoing debates on the historic processes that underlie both thinking on and dealing with the many contexts of cultural heritage.

10h45 - Britain's Portable Past on Svalbard - Take-Away Archaeology under Threat

F. Kruse

Arctic Centre, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands

The forthcoming publication of a doctoral thesis regarding historical British mining on former Spitsbergen raises new questions relating to the conservation of industrial material remains. Four British mining companies operated on the archipelago in the European High Arctic in the first quarter of the twentieth century. Their activities were more widely spread than those of their international competitors, creating a unique archaeological record. Archaeological fieldwork in 2008 and 2010 has shown British archaeological sites to range from substantial settlements to currently undisturbed portable finds. In Britain, good practice guides for portable finds are based on the assumption that once discovered they are thoroughly recorded and collected. On Svalbard, the sites in question are not likely to come under threat from industrial or agricultural processes, yet the forthcoming thesis may initiate cultural tourism in areas where there was none before. Although there are a number of international laws that protect portable finds from willful human destruction, natural erosion is usually accelerated by cultural erosion (Roura, 2011). Does the author of the thesis therefore have an obligation not to disclose the location of these vulnerable sites, or would their publication allow for greater understanding and better conservation?

11h00 - Collaborative Ways of Thinking and Theorising the Taiga: Evenki Reindeer Porters (kaiury) and Geological Exploration in the Northern
Baikal Area, Russia

V. Davydov

1University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, United Kingdom

This research is based on 5 months of archival work and on 11 months of fieldwork in the northern Baikal area, Russia. Within the 20th century the living space of northern Baikal Evenki reindeer herders and hunters has changed. These people faced numerous development projects including intensive mining, sovietisation and collectivisation, creation of Evenki settlements and construction of Baikal-Amur Mainline. It is an obvious thing that reindeer herding and hunting correlate with the intensive movements around local spaces. Commonly people involved in these activities do not stay in one place for a long period of time. Their rich knowledge of the area is a result of their movements between different locations.

The northern Baikal region has long been the focus of extractive industry and intensive development projects. Even though newcomers became proponents of the policy of 'sedentarisation', they employed both Evenki knowledge and movements in their projects. Local people became incorporated into these projects through employment and the intensive relations with newcomers. Despite the fact that newcomers gradually introduced new architecture as well as administrative units in the region, local people adjusted all these innovations to the modes and trajectories of their movements.

The need for geological exploration in the region created a need for equipment and food transportation as well as for extensive knowledge of the territories. In the Tsarist period, Evenkis started to work as reindeer porters (kaiury) for projects exploiting minerals. These people helped newcomers find mineral deposits and also participated in the mapping of the territory. There is a long history to collaborative ways of thinking and theorising the taiga in the region. For instance, the famous researcher of Siberia, Petr Kropotkin, employed Evenki guides in his expeditions and quoted their geographic knowledge in his works. The existence of the group known as kaiury (reindeer porters) can itself be interpreted as a result of such collaboration; its origins are a result of intensive relations with newcomers. In the Soviet period Evenki reindeer porters also actively participated in the geological exploration of the region by providing transportation and sharing the local knowledge with the newcomers. Even though kaiur as an official occupation does not officially exist in the northern Baikal region nowadays, the members of the clan community (obshchina) occasionally perform the same functions as kaiury by providing transportation to scientific surveys.

The history of the joint work of reindeer porters and geologists in the northern Baikal area is the history of intensive relations and collaboration. Certainly, kaiury helped geologists bring equipment and provisions to out-of-the-way Siberian taiga places; however they shared more than that. The collaboration between the members of the geological surveys and Evenkis included the exchange of knowledge. It was not just a case of local knowledge of geographic locations and trails; the geologists who came to the region had to study how to live and travel in the taiga in any season. Their collaboration and good relationships should be seen as a result of the common experience of living and working together.

11h15 - Ancient and Urgent: Climate Change Impacts on the Arctic Archaeological Record

T.M. Friesen1, H.P. Blankholm2, B. Grønnow3, M.S. Murray4

1University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada2University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway3National Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark4University of Alaska, Fairbanks, USA

Across the circumpolar North, climate change is impacting modern societies in many ways, ranging from reduced availability of major game species to slumping infrastructure and environmental degradation related to increased commercial activity. However, less widely known are the many severe threats to the region's archaeological record. Destruction of archaeological sites represents not only the loss of long-term history which forms the basis of modern cultural identities, but also the destruction of an irreplaceable record of biological and paleoclimate data locked in the botanical, zoological, and geological assemblages in these sites. High latitude archaeological sites are being destroyed through three primary mechanisms. First, permafrost and permanent snow pack are thawing at unprecedented rates, exposing long-frozen sites to increased microbial activity, rapid drying and cracking of previously wet artifacts, increased exposure to ultraviolet light and wind, and mechanical breakage; all of which lead to accelerated destruction of delicate organic remains. Second, sea levels are rising, in a process which is projected to continue and accelerate through the present century, thus exposing coasts to increased erosion. Third, weather patterns are changing, which in some cases may lead to increased storminess. When combined with longer open-water periods in the summer, this will lead to increasing wave impacts on coasts. Importantly, these three factors often amplify each other, leading to increased cumulative impacts. For example, stormy seas and higher sea levels cause major damage to coasts, with the process accelerated by the thawing of permafrost which makes bluff edges more susceptible to slumping. In addition to these direct processes, sea ice loss is expected to lead to increased Arctic shipping, which will in turn lead to issues such as increased mining and port construction, damaging wake impacts on shorelines, and increasing ecotourism which often includes visits to fragile archaeological sites. This paper will present an overview of the ways in which climate change factors are impacting the archaeological record, describe several case studies in which researchers are beginning to address the problem, and discuss the need for future national and international efforts to understand and mitigate climate change-related site destruction.

11h30 - Paleolimnology Meets Archaeology: Assessing the Impacts on Local Freshwater Ecosystems of Early Arctic Peoples

M.S.V. Douglas1, K.R. Hadley2, K.M. McCleary2, D. Antoniades1,3, J.M. Blais4, N. Michelutti2, J.P. Smol2, P.D. Sutherland5

1University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada2Queen's University, Kingston, Canada3Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay4University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada5Canadian Museum of Civilization, Ottawa, Canada

The Dorset Paleo-Eskimos and the Thule Inuit were distinct populations of early peoples living in the Canadian Arctic. The Thule people were ancestral to the Inuit, and are believed to have immigrated to the region from Alaska ca 800 years ago. The Thule were semi-nomadic maritime hunters who subsisted largely on sea mammals including bowhead whales. The Dorset people occupied Arctic Canada between ca. 2500 and 500 years ago. They had less maritime capability than the Thule, although they hunted seals, walrus, and small whales as well as large terrestrial mammals such as caribou. Archaeological excavations across the Arctic have identified numerous sites exhibiting evidence of occupation by one or both of these groups. Archaeological sites reveal contact with early Europeans, such as the Norse, may have been more common than previously thought. Paleolimnological investigations of the local history preserved within the sediments of nearby ponds and lakes provide additional data to aid in the interpretation of these past societies and the environments within which they lived. Using a variety of proxy indicators including diatom microfossils, 15δN isotopes, spectrally inferred chlorophyll a concentrations and radiometric dating including 210Pb and 14C, we reconstructed the environments. Our original study on Somerset Island (72°08.66'N, 94°01.50'W) showed that, despite small populations, the semi-nomadic Thule populations could be tracked using paleolimnological techniques. Capable of hunting large bowhead whales, the Thule people spent the Arctic winters at locales where meat and blubber had been stored and where winter houses were constructed. Whales hunted during the summer were butchered on shore and provided food, fuel and housing materials. Nutrients derived from the whale carcasses can be identified by their enriched 15δN signature as well as changes in the diatom assemblages within the sediments of nearby ponds. The sediments record an increase in nutrients to each Thule-affected pond and lake and, in many instances, the present day limnological nutrient concentrations are greatly elevated relative to those of local control sites. Paleolimnological records also demonstrate that no substantial shifts in climatic conditions were evident during the times of Thule occupation at each site. Subsequent studies on Bathurst Island (75° 29'N, 97°29' W) and Ellesmere Island (79°07' N, 76° 45'W) revealed similar findings. Comparative analyses of impacted and non-impacted ponds and lakes on south Baffin Island (62°44.851'N 69°39.354'W and nearby) demonstrated that in most cases the Dorset peoples did not impact nearby lakes to the same extent as the Thule, due largely to differences in hunting capabilities and prey. The findings from this research can be used to determine the length of occupation of the various sites and to provide additional insights into the nature of site occupations.

11h00 - (Empty)

10h00 - 12h00 2.1.5 Global Impacts of a Melting Cryosphere

Room: 516AChairs: Kristy Langley and Bob Bindschadler

10h00 - INVITED: Global Impacts of Arctic Sea-ice Changes

A. Jahn

1National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, USA

The impacts of the decline in the Arctic sea-ice cover have implications not just in the Arctic, but also outside the Arctic. One example is the phase shift of the freshwater export from the Arctic, from approximately evenly divided between solid and liquid at the moment, to predominantly liquid later in the 21st century. This phase shift is important because solid and liquid freshwater exported from the Arctic reach different regions in the North Atlantic - with potential impacts on the stratification in the deep-water formation regions of the North Atlantic. Another example are changes in the total amount of freshwater exported and the pathway the export takes out of the Arctic - either east or west of Greenland. These changes also have the potential to impact the stratification in the North Atlantic. Using simulations from the Community Earth System Model (CESM), I will show how the freshwater export from the Arctic could change over the 21st century under the different emission scenarios, and how this change contributes to changes in the stratification in the North Atlantic, and ultimately the strength of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation.

10h15 - Increased Linkages of Arctic with sub-Arctic Weather and Climate

J. Overland1, M. Wang2, N. Bond2, K. Wood2

1NOAA/Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory2JISAO/University of Washington

Winter 2009-2010 and December 2010 showed a unique connectivity between the Arctic and more southern weather when the typical stable polar vortex which tends to keep the Arctic cold and isolated was replaced by increased temperatures over the central Arctic and persistent north-south oriented cold air outbreaks over mid-latitudes, a Warm Arctic-Cold Continents pattern. These cold air outbreaks resulted in record snow and low temperatures with major economic disruptions in northern Europe, eastern North America and eastern Asia. The negative value of the winter (DJF 2009-2010) North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index associated with a weak polar vortex and enhanced meridional winds was the lowest observed value since the beginning of the record in 1865. December 2005, 2007, and 2008 also show an impact of recent warmer Arctic autumn temperatures. A possible contributing factor to these changes is the decrease in the extent and thickness of the Arctic sea ice cover. Additional heat stored in recently increased sea-ice free areas is released to the atmosphere during the autumn, and its impact is seen in changing regional wind patterns. There are a number of model-based studies that hypothesize Arctic-subarctic connections due to loss of sea ice, but the issue remains controversial. While sea ice influences on the regional atmosphere are seen in 2005, 2007 and 2008, it is by no means clear how this effect interacts with sub-Arctic atmospheric circulation patterns during the larger scale linkages in 2009 and 2010. It is not expect that such a major linkage would be seen in every year. A major challenge of Arctic meteorology is to understand the interaction of forced changes such as loss of sea ice and land impacts with intrinsic climate patterns, as the occurrence of such linkages and the Warm Arctic-Cold Continents pattern may increase with continued warmer Arctic temperatures and loss of summer sea ice.

10h30 - Sea Ice and the Atmospheric Cycle of Water Vapor and its Isotopologues

E. Posmentier1, A. Faiia, K. Everhart, D. Whiteman, X. Feng

More than a half century ago, the crucial feedback between sea ice and the Arctic atmosphere's hydrologic cycle was invoked to explain the Quaternary ice ages. But the difficulty of measuring evaporation and precipitation in Arctic conditions has made it virtually impossible to quantify this sea ice effect. Isotopic measurements, however, have opened a new chapter in studies of this climate feedback.

We examine here data related to 106 storm events in Barrow and Atqasuk, AK, a subset of the pan-Arctic events studied by iiSPACS (Isotopic Investigation of Sea-ice and Precipitation in the Arctic Climate System). Precipitation was collected for each storm, and the precipitation isotopic ratios of D/H (deuterium to hydrogen) and 18O/16O were measured. Theoretical values of the ratios were calculated beginning with HYSPLIT back trajectories using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis wind data to find both the low-latitude and Arctic source regions of cloud vapor in each storm. Then, Rayleigh distillation depleted the vapor advected moist adiabatically along a forward trajectory to the precipitation site. Finally, the isotopic ratio of the subsequent precipitation was determined by fractionation during condensation or deposition.

Comparisons between the empirical data and theoretical isotopic ratios demonstrate that (1) isotopic ratios in precipitation and sea ice in the Arctic source region are significantly correlated; (2) sea ice in the Arctic source region significantly affects the estimated amount of precipitation in Barrow and Atqasuk; and (3) theoretical assumptions lead to a positive bias of about 57 per mil in deuterium; i.e., an overestimate of isotopic ratios of the vapor relative to observations.

It may be inferred from our observations that a diminution of sea ice area does, indeed, cause an increase in precipitation at the two terrestrial Arctic sites reported on here. This is the 'missing link' in a negative climate feedback from warming, to sea ice decrease, to terrestrial Arctic precipitation increase, albedo increase, and cooling, and this feedback is at its greatest around the time of the summer solstice, when insolation is at its maximum. At this time we are not, however, able to determine if this negative feedback is comparable in magnitude with its positive counterparts.

A further inference is that one or more processes neglected by the simple Rayleigh distillation model be necessary to remove the positive bias in theoretical isotope values. The neglected processes include radiative cooling, droplet size effects on fractionation, air mass mixing, terrestrial vapor sources, and post-formation interaction between hydrometeors and sub-cloud air. It should be obvious from our results, as well as from numerous other studies, that isotope ratios in ice cores are a proxy for a combination of climate variables, including a significant contribution from sea ice area; they are not a simple paleothermometer except under restrictive assumptions.

10h45 - An Initial Estimate of the Cost of Lost Climate Regulation Services Due to Changes in the Arctic Cryosphere

E. Goodstein1, E. Euskirchen2, H.P. Huntington3

1Bard College, Annandale-on-Hudson, New York, USA2University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA3Pew Environment Group, Eagle River, Alaska, USA

Ice and snow are defining features of the Arctic. Arctic snow and ice define the homelands and cultures of indigenous peoples and ecosystems that harbor species which are uniquely adapted to this environment. In this sense, the value of this snow and ice is incalculable.

However, part of the value of the frozen Arctic can be estimated in terms of the climate regulation services it provides to the world. Snow and ice reflect sunlight, helping to cool the Earth. In addition, permafrost traps methane, a potent greenhouse gas. While many studies have examined the mechanisms by which the frozen Arctic and global climate are interrelated, this study estimates the dollar cost of global warming brought about by decreases in the extent and duration of ice and snow, as well as permafrost degradation.

Recent and expected changes in Arctic sea ice cover, snow cover, and methane emissions from permafrost thaw are likely to result in large positive feedbacks to climate warming. While these changes in the cryosphere will have far-reaching ecological and climatic impacts that we are just beginning to understand, there is little recognition of the significant loss in economic value that the disappearance of Arctic sea ice, snow, and permafrost will impose on humans. Here, we examine how sea ice and snow cover as well as methane emissions due to changes in permafrost may potentially change in the future, to year 2100, and how these changes may feedback to influence the climate. We convert the additional planetary warming caused by these three effects into annual CO2 equivalents, and then calculate costs incurred by the additional warming using per ton social cost of carbon estimates from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In economic terms, estimated costs between 2010 - 2020 from the decline in albedo due to losses of sea ice and snow, plus this year's methane emissions, range from a mean of $60 billion to $2.4 trillion per year. By 2050, these numbers will rise to a cumulative range of $3.7 trillion to $12 trillion. And over the next century, cumulative costs to society will run from $13.4 trillion to $42.3 trillion. The large estimated range reflects uncertainty associated with: (1) the planet's temperature sensitivity to increased carbon emissions (climate sensitivity), (2) the actual future impacts from a given increase in temperature, (3) the uncertainty in the total emissions levels, (4) economic and population growth that will occur over the coming decades, and (5) especially, the choice of discount rate. The frozen arctic provides immense services to all nations by cooling the earth's temperature-the cryosphere is an air conditioner for the planet. As the Arctic thaws, this critical, climate-stabilizing ecosystem service is being lost, and this paper provides a first attempt to monetize the cost of some of those lost services.

11h00 -  Discoveries from the Norwegian-US Scientific Traverse of East Antarctica

 View Frostbyte

M. Albert1, J.G. Winther2, R. Edwards4, J.O.M. Hagen4, S.E. Hamran5, E. Isaksson2, J. Kohler2, J. McConnell4, T. Neumann11, T. Scambos10, H. Anschütz2, M. Bisaux4, Z. Courville3, G. Hamilton6, K.A. Høgda7, K. Langley2, G. Liston8, K. Müller5, A. Muto9, A. Sinisalo5

1Dartmouth University, Hanover, N.H. USA2Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromso, Norway3Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab, Hanover, N.H., USA4Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV, USA5University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway6University of Maine, Orono, Maine, USA7NORUT, Tromsø, Norway8Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA9Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA, USA10University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA

Surface mass balance and recent climate history in East Antarctica are poorly known yet are very important for sea level change. Using an interdisciplinary approach and the latest technologies, the Norwegian-US Scientific Traverse of East Antarctica aimed to improve understanding of surface mass balance and the drivers of climate variability through measurements of modern and historic accumulation rate and tracers of atmospheric circulation in East Antarctica, while assessing evidence of recent warming-related changes. Also early exploration was planned of recently discovered subglacial lakes. Discoveries from the traverse include the following.

Accumulation measurements gained from ice cores collected on the Traverse reflect large spatial variability in East Antarctica. Millennial-scale net accumulation rates from ice cores are generally lower than net snowfall estimated in previously published large-scale assessments. While climate models predict increased accumulation related to warming and ice core and radar based measurements suggest 20th century increases in accumulation, pronounced natural variability precludes conclusive identification of clear trends during recent decades. The very crystal structure of firn provides an indication of accumulation rate and climate that is visible from space, and the structure is very sensitive to post depositional metamorphism; snow properties provide the key to mapping remotely-sensed accumulation rate on a high resolution basis. Mapping of small regions of windswept snow-free surfaces in East Antarctica appears possible, and the wide extent of these features appears to have implications for total snow input to the East Antarctic Ice sheet; remote sensing validation using NOR-US radar and field firn measurements confirmed the method used. High resolution measurements in ice cores show surprising similarity in aerosol deposition across all spatial and temporal scales, supporting the importance of South American and other mid-latitude source areas on dust, burning, and pollution aerosols. Firn temperature measurements suggest a recent warming trend near the crest of the East Antarctic ice sheet but cooling or no change at a lower elevation site. This pattern confirms an emerging consensus about the recent climate history of East Antarctica derived from climate data analysis.

The Traverse acquired ground-based radar data on the newly-discovered Sublglacial Recovery Lakes. The Recovery Lakes are water rich but are not currently water filled. While the features are represented by large surface basins in the ice surface, in fact much of this surface feature area appears to be sediment-filled. However, a smaller sub-area of the surface basin has both stronger radar returns and a constant hydrostatic pressure value, and appears to underlie particularly low and flat center portion of the lakes. Like a pond in the center of a playa valley, this may represent a region of some remaining water layer.

Discoveries from the Norwegian-US Scientific Traverse of East Antarctica generated achievements that could not have been possible by any nation acting alone. In addition, through extensive international outreach, the importance of the science and excitement of this traverse through Antarctica's farthest frontier engaged public audiences around the world. Involving an international group of students and young investigators, the traverse has contributed to the establishment of the next generation of polar scientists and engineers. This successful IPY project has established an international partnership that may serve as the basis for a number of future endeavors.

11h15 - Basal Hydrology Modifies Ice Sheet Thickness, Structure and Rheology: Antarctic IPY Insights Applied to the Greenland Ice Sheet

R.E. Bell1, K. Tinto1, H. Abdi1, M. Wolovick1, I. Das1, T. Creyts1, A. Block1, F. Ferraccioli2, A.G.A.P. Team2, B. Csatho3

1Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, USA2British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, UK3University of Buffalo, Buffalo, USA

Evidence from the International Polar Year AGAP project to the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains and Dome A, has demonstrated that basal hydrologic networks can modify ice sheet thickness, structure and rheology by widespread persistent basal freeze-on. In East Antarctica, the freeze-on process is associated with well-defined hydrologic networks along valleys. In the radar, the accretion ice is characterized by distinct basal reflectors emerging from the hydrologic network. The reflectors are spatially continuous from line to line indicating that these features are not the result of off-nadir reflections. Individual accretion bodies can be 25 km wide across flow, 100 km along flow with average thicknesses of ∼490m. Evidence that these spatially coherent reflectors demark accreted ice is the upward deflection of the overlying internal layers accompanied by thickening of base of the ice sheet. In Dome A, the accumulation rate is very low, the ice velocity 1-3 meters/year and the subglacial topography is rugged. The accretion packages originate in ice that is 2400-3000m thick.

We used the Dome A template for interpreting basal reflectors to re-examine radar data from Greenland, including flightlines from NASA's Operation Icebridge. The criteria for identifying ice that may be the result of basal freeze-on are that reflectors originate from bed and move higher into the ice sheet downflow, and that reflectors are spatially continuous from line to line Supporting criteria are that the basal packages may deflect internal layer stratigraphy upward and thicken the basal package of ice. We have identified possible candidates for accretion ice in numerous radar lines north of 70°N. The absence of coincident gravity anomalies requires that these reflectors define distinct packages of ice and are not off-nadir topography. Along Petermann Glacier, these features are spatially continuous over multiple survey lines and can be traced for 30-100km. The ice velocities in the region range from ∼50-200m/yr, the accumulation rate is 17 cm/yr, the ice thickness is 1300-2200m and the topography is generally very flat. We have identified 4 distinct ice packages characterized by strong upper reflectors that thicken downstream. These basal reflectors deflect the overlying internal layers upward indicating the addition of ice to the ice sheet base. While there is evidence for extensive basal melt in northern Greenland, no well-defined basal water network is evident close to these basal reflectors. Given their similarity to the features in Dome A these reflectors are likely the result of basal freeze-on. Possible explanations for the apparent absence of basal water include, the basal water network is distributed, intermittent or localized in an under-sampled fluvial drainage system. The evidence for large scale freeze-on in the Petermann system indicates that basal hydrology is modifying the base of the Greenland ice sheet. The role of hydrology and basal freeze-on modifying the thickness, structure and rheology of the ice sheet must be considered in developing accurate models of ice dynamics.

11h30 - Greenland Ice Sheet Dynamics and Glacial Earthquake Activities

M. Kanao1, S. Tsuboi2, R. Butler3, K. Anderson4, T. Dahl-Jensen5, T. Larsen5, M. Nettles6, P. Voss5, D. Childs4, J. Clinton7, E. Stutzmann8, T. Himeno1, G. Toyokuni1, S. Tanaka2, Y. Tono2

1National Institute of Polar Research, Tokyo, Japan; 2Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokohama, Japan; 3University of Hawaii, Honolulu HI, United States; 4Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology, Washington, DC, United States; 5Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen, Denmark; 6Columbia University, New York, United States; 7Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zurich, Switzerland; 8Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, Paris, France

The Greenland ice sheet and its response to climate change have potentially a great impact upon mankind, both through sea-level rise and modulation of fresh water input to the oceans. Monitoring a dynamic response of the Greenland ice sheet to climate change is a fundamental component of long-term observations in global science. "Glacial earthquakes" have been observed along the edges of Greenland with strong seasonality and increasing frequency in this 21st century by the data from Global Seismographic Network (GSN). During the period of 1993-2006, more than 200 glacial earthquakes were detected, but more than 95% have occurred on Greenland, with the remaining events in Antarctica. Greenland glacial earthquakes are considered to be closely associated with major outlet glaciers at the margins of the continental ice sheet. Temporal patterns of these earthquakes indicate a clear seasonal change and a significant increase in frequency after 2002. These patterns are positively correlated with seasonal hydrologic variations, significantly increased flow speeds, calving-front retreat, and thinning at many outlet glaciers. These long-period surface waves generated by glacial earthquakes are incompatible with standard earthquake models for tectonic stress release, but the amplitude and phase of the radiated waves can be explained by a landslide source model. The seismicity around Greenland including tectonic/volcanic events was investigated by applying a statistical model to the globally accumulated data. Calculated b values, the Magnitude-frequency-dependence parameter, indicated a slight increase from 0.7 to 0.8 in 1968-2007, implying that the seismicity including glacial events around Greenland become slightly higher during the last four decades. The detection, enumeration, and characterization of smaller glacial earthquakes were limited by the propagation distance to globally distributed stations of the GSN. Glacial earthquakes have been observed at stations within Greenland, but the coverage has been very sparse. In order to define the fine structure and detailed mechanisms of glacial earthquakes, a broadband, real-time network needs to be established throughout the ice sheet and perimeter. The International Polar Year (IPY 2007-2008) was a good opportunity to initiate the program with international collaboration. Then, the "Greenland Ice Sheet Monitoring Network (GLISN)" was initiated for the purpose of identifying the dynamic response of the Greenland ice sheet to climate change.

11h45 - (Empty)

10h00 - 12h00 2.2.6 Past, Present and Future Polar Climate Change

Room: 516DChair: Michael Fritz

10h00 - A Synoptic Weather-Typing Approach to Project Future Daily Snowfall/Snow Depth and Extremes at Local Scale over Northern Canada

C. S. Cheng1, B. Wong2, Z. Huang3

1MSC Operations - Ontario Region, Environment Canada2Science & Technology Branch, Environment Canada3Science & Technology Branch, Environment Canada

The overarching purpose of this study was to project changes in the occurrence frequency and intensity of future daily snowfall events and daily snow depth under downscaled future climate conditions over northern Canada. The 55-year historical data, including hourly/daily meteorological observations, were used to develop daily snowfall and snow depth simulation models. In addition, nine GCM simulations with two IPCC AR4 scenarios (A2 and B1) were used in the study for future two-time windows (2046-65 and 2081-2100). The GCM historical runs (1961-2000) were also used to correct the GCM biases. Different regression methods were used to construct downscaling transfer functions for different meteorological variables with different kinds of data distribution. Using downscaled GCM meteorological variables, automated synoptic weather typing integrated with cumulative logit and non-linear regression methods was applied to project future daily snowfall amounts and daily snow depths. Downscaling transfer functions and snowfall/snow depth simulation models were validated using a cross-validation scheme as well as comparing data distributions and extremes derived from both downscaled GCM historical runs and observations over a comparative time period 1961-2000. The verification results showed that the models for all variables used in the study performed very well, with a very good agreement based on historical observations of the outcome variables simulated by the models. During the typical winter months (e.g., December-February), the frequencies of future daily snowfall events and daily snow depths over northern Canada are projected to significantly increase.

This talk will introduce the research project and outline the modeling exercise and verification process. The major findings on future snowfall/snow depth projections from the study will be summarized in the presentation as well. One of the major conclusions from the study is that the methods used in the study are useful for climate change impact analysis on future daily snowfall/snow depth and extremes.

10h15 - Modeling the Arctic Hydrologic Cycle with a High Resolution Regional Coupled Climate Model

L. Niederdrenk1,2, D. Sein1, U. Mikolajewicz1

1Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany2School of Integrated Climate System Sciences, Hamburg, Germany

Warming caused by anthropogenic climate change increases the northward atmospheric moisture transport at high latitudes and thus also the freshwater input into the Arctic Ocean.
Global general circulation models show remarkable differences in their response to such an increase in freshwater input. Some models simulate an increasing freshwater export, while others show almost no change in the first decades in the amount of the total freshwater export, but an increase in the storage of freshwater within the Arctic Ocean. The resolution of global general circulation models is too coarse to adequately resolve small scale processes and the complex topography of the Canadian archipelago. To overcome this difficulty we use a high resolution regional coupled climate model to simulate the Arctic hydrologic cycle.

We establish the following model setup: We use the Max-Planck-Institute global ocean/sea ice model MPIOM with high resolution in the Arctic region. We achieve this regional high resolution by using a model grid with grid poles located in Southwest Canada and the Middle Ural Mountains. The ocean model is coupled to the regional atmospheric general circulation model REMO. The domain of the atmosphere model covers the full catchment area of the Arctic rivers. Furthermore, we include a discharge model providing lateral terrestrial waterflows.
We run the model without salinity restoring but with freshwater correction. This freshwater correction is set to zero in the Arctic. This enables the analysis of a closed freshwater budget in the Arctic region.
As lateral forcing for the regional atmosphere model as well as for the ocean model in the uncoupled domain we use data from an A1B scenario run with MPIOM/ECHAM5, which was performed for the last IPCC report.

We present model results for the 20th and 21st century. For today's climate the components of the freshwater budget are represented much better with our regional setup, most obvious in the transport through the Canadian archipelago. Our model results show a realistic seasonal and interannual cycle of the freshwater components and the model is able to reproduce the observed positive trend in river runoff into the Arctic Ocean.
We compare results from the scenario run for the 21st century to today's climate as well as to results from global models. Furthermore, we analyze how the Arctic Ocean reacts to the enhanced freshwater input and how a probably enhanced freshwater export into the North Atlantic influences the deepwater formation and therewith the meridional overturning circulation.

10h30 - Warmer Climate - Less or More Snow?

J. Räisänen

1University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

Model simulations of greenhouse gas induced climate change indicate both a strong wintertime warming and an increase in winter precipitation over the Northern Hemisphere mid-to-high-latitude continents. The former acts to reduce the amount of snow, the latter to increase it. Here, the balance between these competing factors is studied using the CMIP3 ensemble of model simulations of 21st century climate change (with good luck, some results might be updated using the CMIP5 ensemble). Although the simulated warming shortens the snow season from its both ends in all of Eurasia and North America, snow water equivalent (SWE) at the height of the winter generally increases in the coldest areas. Elsewhere, snow decreases throughout the winter. The average borderline between increasing and decreasing midwinter SWE coincides broadly with the -20°C isotherm in late 20th century November to March mean temperature, although with some variability between different areas. On the colder side of this isotherm, an increase in total precipitation generally dominates over reduced fraction of solid precipitation and more efficient melting, and SWE therefore increases. On the warmer side, where the phase of winter precipitation and snowmelt are more sensitive to the simulated warming, the reverse happens. The strong temperature dependence of the simulated SWE changes suggests that biases in present-day temperature climate should be carefully assessed when interpreting model-simulated changes in snow conditions. This research is described in more detail by Räisänen (2008).

10h45 - Inhibition of the Positive Snow-albedo Feedback by Precipitation on the Antarctic Plateau

F. Domine1,2, G. Picard1, G. Krinner1, L. Arnaud1, E. Lefebvre1

1UJF-Grenoble 1 / CNRS, Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Géophysique de l'Environn2UMI 3376 Takuvik,CNRS and Université Laval, Québec, (QC) G1V 0A6, Canada

The high albedo of snow largely determines the climate of polar regions by controlling the absorption of energy at the surface. In Antarctica, where light-absorbing impurities are few, snow albedo is mostly determined by the size of snow grains. Snow metamorphism, the process of coarsening of initially small snow grains, occurs at a rate mainly determined by snow temperature and by the temperature gradient in the snow. Therefore, snow albedo in Antarctica is determined by climatic variables. In turn, albedo strongly affects climate, through the energy budget of the surface. This leads to a positive snow-albedo feedback even in perennially snow covered areas.
We used passive microwave satellite data and model outputs to show that this positive feedback can be inhibited by small amounts of precipitation. This can be explained by the fact that grain coarsening in Antarctica is more sensitive than previously assumed to summer precipitation because of the strong influence of the solar absorption on near-surface metamorphism. We deduce that projected future increases in precipitation can increase snow albedo by 0.004 in average (and up to 0.02) during the XXIst century, thus reducing the absorbed solar energy by about 1.5 W m-2 in summer. Based on general circulation model simulations, we show that these processes can lead to a decrease of temperature of 0.5°C in summer and 0.3°C in the annual mean. The interplay between snow physical properties and climate therefore appears as a critical aspect for the accurate prediction of climate change in polar regions.

11h00 - Links between Weather Storm Events over the Hudson Bay area (Canada) and Regional Sea-ice State and Large-scale Teleconnection

P. Gachon1, R. Aider2, P. Martin1, M. Radojevic3, C. Saad1, S. Gagnon1, A. Cotnoir1

1Environment Canada, Montreal, Canada2University of Québec at Montréal, Montreal, Canada3Global Environmental and Climate Change Centre, McGill University, Montreal, Ca

Among the numerous storm tracks studies, no in-depth analysis has been done on the characteristics of storms over the specific Hudson Bay (HB) area located in northeastern Canada, especially with regards to their specific influences on oceanic waves, sea-ice (including the regional sea-ice feedbacks on the features of weather storms), and regional atmospheric conditions in general. Hence, the main aim of our study is to improve our knowledge on trajectories, occurrence, frequency, duration/persistence and intensity of meteorological storms over the HB area, as well as on the risk and scale of storm surge and wave activities to come at intra- and inter-annual time scales. This is to support a vulnerability and adaptation study in which the HB maritime infrastructures are concerned, and ultimately to better anticipate and mitigate the impacts of climate change on this vulnerable ecosystem. The derived indices of storm characteristics are using different datasets from both global (NCEP and ERA-40) and regional (NARR) reanalysis, and from high resolution data series using regional climate model (RCM) outputs (three series of runs driven by both NCEP and ERA-40) over the recent decades (i.e. 1979-2007). The links between storm characteristics, sea-ice and some of the key teleconnection indices are also explored considering the importance of 'natural' inherent variability within the HB system, and before to explore in further study the anticipated climate changes using scenarios runs from an ensemble of RCMs. The results of this study suggest that the storms in early winter and summer are strongly linked with sea-ice features with an increase in life cycle, and local re-development of storms with a reduction of their speed of moving when sea-ice decreases, especially in eastern part of HB and over the Hudson strait. The links between the large-scale teleconnection indices and these storm features are also quite substantial, in particular through fall to spring months. In the context of potential reduction in sea-ice extent and duration over the coming decades, associated with polar amplification of global warming, certain combined effects and feedbacks between sea-ice and storms are also anticipated to be potentially exacerbated with some direct influences on the regime of oceanic waves within the HB area. This is of primary importance not only for the design and life cycle of maritime infrastructures, but also for the regional climatic conditions within the HB climate system, as the storm regime plays a key role in the variability and extremes of both near surface winds, precipitation and air temperatures.

11h15 - Intraseasonal Variations of DA Pattern and Arctic Summer Ice Minima

J. Wang1, X. Bai2

1NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Atbor, Michigan USA2University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan USA

The record low Arctic sea ice occurred in September 2007, followed by the second lowest in 2008, the third lowest in 2010, and the fourth lowest in 2009. Although the Dipole Anomaly (DA) has been identified as the major driver, what are the mechanisms for Arctic sea ice to gradually recover during 2008-2009, and to reduce again in 2010 and 2011. This study examines these cases in a great detail to search for dynamic and thermodynamic sound mechanisms, along with historical observations. It comes to the conclusion that under the thin-ice preconditioning (warming) during previous decade's positive Arctic Oscillation (AO) phase, local meridional wind anomaly associated DA during winter to summer is a major forcing for sea ice recovery. Intraseasonal variation of DA and its impact on sea ice advection will be discussed. Using the DA index to regress to previous summer ice minima, it is possible to project summer Arctic minimum sea ice extent.

11h30 - Simulated 20th-21st Century Arctic Sea Ice in CCSM4: Changing Seasonality and its Role on the Surface Albedo Feedback

M.M. Holland1, A. Jahn1, B. Light2, D. Perovich3, S. Vavrus4

1National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, USA2University of Washington, Seattle, USA3CRREL, Hanover, USA4University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA

Newly released integrations from the Community Climate System Model 4 (CCSM4) show excellent fidelity to observed Arctic sea ice conditions for the late 20th century. This includes a reasonable ice thickness and seasonal coverage and a realistic timing of surface melt onset and freeze up. In 21st century integrations with the RCP8.5 future greenhouse gas scenario forcing, CCSM4 simulates significant Arctic sea ice loss and reaches near-ice free September conditions by about 2070. This large-scale ice retreat is accompanied by changes in the timing of seasonal triggers, such as melt season onset, melt pond formation, and fall freeze-up. This modifies the large-scale sea ice heat and mass budgets and influences ice-ocean-atmosphere heat and fresh water exchange with resulting impacts throughout the Arctic system. The changes in sea ice seasonality play an important role in the surface albedo feedback and the amplification of Arctic change. Here we discuss the simulation of Arctic sea ice in CCSM4 integrations. We explore the effects of changing seasonality in the Arctic sea ice cover and quantify the role that changes in the timing of seasonal triggers play on the sea ice mass budgets, the surface albedo feedback and the Arctic amplification of surface warming in CCSM4.

11h45 - Assessment of Arctic Sea Ice in the CMIP5 Climate Models

J.C. Stroeve, A. Barrett

1University of Colorado, Boulder, USA

In a previous investigation of sea ice extent simulated by models participating in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) we showed that while all models realistically capture the climatological mean and seasonal cycle of Arctic sea ice, none of the models or individual model simulations show trends as large as observed over the period of reliable observations (1953-present). Even accounting for annual-to-decadal variability in both observed and modeled trends, the AR4 models as a group were found to be too conservative regarding the ice loss rate, and the date at which a seasonally ice free Arctic Ocean may be realized. This has become even more apparent after the last 5 years of continued record low ice extents.

In this study, we repeat the analysis of Stroeve et al. [2007] using the latest model output prepared for the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5). We investigate seasonal and interannual variability and trends in the modeled sea ice extent and how these compare with those in the observational record. We also evaluate sea ice mass budgets for the 20th century and projected changes through the 21st century. Differences in modeled values of the ice extent and mass budgets are then evaluated in terms of their thermodynamic and dynamic contributions, and how these contributions change over time. Results indicate that the models continue to underestimate the fast pace of ice loss observed in the Arctic.

10h00 - 12h00 2.2.7 Sustainable Arctic Development

Room: 515CChairs: Paul Arthur Berkman and Sandra Rodrigues Balao

10h00 - (Empty)

10h15 - International Shipping, Indigenous Subsistence Communities, and Marine Mammals in the Bering Strait Region: Finding a Workable

M.D. Robards1, H.P. Huntington2, R. Daniel3

1Wildlife Conservation Society, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA2Pew Environmental Group, Eagle River, Alaska, USA3Pew Environmental Group, Anchorage, Alaska, USA

The Bering Strait, an 85 km-wide passage that connects the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea to the Chukchi Sea and Arctic Ocean; and Anadyr Strait, a 70 km-wide passage separating St. Lawrence Island from the Chukotka mainland, are globally significant for their marine, avian and coastal biological diversity, and are home to a wide array of indigenous subsistence communities. These communities are highly dependent on the local marine life for their nutritional and cultural survival. Currently a few hundred ships travel through the straits each year, including traffic in support of mining and oil and gas operations, oil super-tankers, freighters, and village supply vessels, as well as scientific research and tourism traffic. This vessel traffic is expected to significantly increase over the next decade and beyond, as the Arctic warms and industrial activities such as mineral and oil and gas extraction expand, and as the Northern Sea Route and the Northwest Passage become more attractive transcontinental shipping routes. Increased commercial shipping activity through international waters creates the need for development of a structured means of ensuring that international shipping (regulated by the International Maritime Organization) and other regulatory measures (e.g., from the U.S. Coast Guard) are designed so as to give priority to the pre-existing subsistence uses of Native coastal communities and the conservation needs of marine mammals. Without such efforts, the risk of direct and indirect vessel impacts to subsistence users and marine mammals escalates. Experience in the North Atlantic with right whales, a close relative of the bowhead whale found in the Bering and Chukchi seas, provides ample evidence of the risks associated with large vessels and the migratory corridors of large whales. In this case, working with local experts led to an acceptable solution for both international shipping and conservation interests, but only after numerous whale strikes had occurred. Additionally, there is a critical need to establish response scenarios for accidents that could impact the large numbers of marine mammals such as bowhead whales, Pacific walruses, and beluga whales that aggregate in large numbers, and at specific times and places. In this presentation, we review the most important issues associated with the rapid escalation of shipping in the Bering Strait region; a range of institutional options that are being discussed to mitigate threats to wildlife and subsistence users from ship traffic; the efforts promoting an active engagement of local communities and their representatives in Chukotka and Alaska to ensure the long-term health and safety of wildlife species and subsistence hunters; and the constraints placed on communities and their representatives by the profound lack of resources with which to actively engage, starting from recommendations at the U.S. federal level to the international process of rule-making for this rapidly changing region.

10h30 - Power, Politics, People and Pole: An Art to Conserve Arctic Ecosystems through Local to Global Initiatives

B.W. Pandey, V.S. Negi

1Shaheed Bhagat Singh Eve. College, University University of Delhi, New Delhi, India

Arctic Ice plays an important role in regulating Earth's climate. Retreating Summer Sea ice is driver of Global Warming. Climate models show that the reduction of Arctic ice is relating to man-made global warming, which, due to the albedo effect is particularly pronounced in the Arctic Polar region. It is related to a surface's reflecting power-whiter sea ice reflects more of the sun's heat back into space than darker seawater, which absorbs the sun's heat and gets warmer. The loss of the Arctic Sea ice is a wakeup call that climate change is here now and is having devastating effects.
Over the last half of the last century, what has emerged politically specially over the past few decades is elite in most part of the arctic pole, Neighboring countries are exercising their power to gain political influence, and in Alaska's case a certain amount of political power at least in the USA Senate. Statehood is what made modern Alaska. Elsewhere, essentially subsidized home rule has emerged in Greenland and much of northern Canada. However, the political development is part of the assertion of native rights in USA and Canada. The Scandinavian North has seen a similar phenomenon with the Sami (Lapps) People. Coal and potentially rich in petroleum and natural gas, rich Sokha republic and too far Koriyak regions, and most recently Romanov Shield in Russia near North Pole.
Due to changing attitude and the development of educated leadership committed to the north but are able to play politics at regional level. The Burger Commission and Nunavut of Canada is another excellent example of recent trend of the Power and Politics. The Iceland was able to adapt to the presence of foreign military bases, and as part of NATO has used its location along the Great Circle Route Crossing the North Atlantic to achieve significant advantages. With the expansion of Urban life, concentrated settlements, Transportation and communications mainly tourism and other economic activities and construction boom have invited Environmental Protection and Preservation have emerged a major issue among the countries of the Gala Arctic Pole region as many parts of the North Pole have been economically and strategically significant for countries due to their location along their major trade routes.
Interlinking Slash and burn cultivation among the Under Developed Countries and Green House Gases emissions among the Annex One Countries together, have strong acceleration and change in the Tropospheric and Stratospheric Chemistry and cloud behavior over the Arctic Polar region especially during winter season. Above anthropogenic economic activities no doubt is practiced at local level but has certainly global effect through Polar Night Jet Streams. This needs an attention to highlight the facts that the Arctic ice is melting and world leaders need to take urgent actions by involving the countries at various transition level.

10h45 - Using Transdisciplinary Knowledge Generation and Dissemination to Design Integrated Strategies for Sustainable Arctic Futures

A.L. Lovecraft, H. Eicken

1University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, USA

In one generation the foundations for life in the Arctic are being transformed. How can Alaska and the circumpolar North best understand the pitfalls and opportunities of rapid change? With such a broad set of transformations, an equally broad approach can play a role in reducing system uncertainty and increasing planning capacity. Integrated strategies for addressing sustainable development and environmental protection require holistic assessments of large-scale complex social-ecological systems (SES). One approach to this is the creation of transdisciplinary teams dedicated to a meso-scale 'crude look at the whole' (CLAW). Transdisciplinarity refers to transcending boundaries between academic and stakeholder, public and private sectors to engage conflicting needs, interests, and values in a particular area of study (Østreng 2010). CLAW stems from the work of Murray Gell-Mann on sustainability and promotes synthetic understanding over reductionism (2010). While all socio-ecological system attributes cannot be captured, key drivers related to system transformation can be analyzed. This paper draws on the experience of North by 2020, a research forum founded during IPY, to demonstrate how integrated inquiry may avoid fragmentation and project deliverables can balance disciplinary depth with pragmatic strategies. The North by 2020 process and products provide a richer understanding of the effects of environmental change across the Alaska region by assembling scientific data, elder expertise, artistic expression, private-sector experts, and case-study depth in a transdisciplinary depiction of the rapidly changing North.

Key findings related to our major areas of inquiry - indigenous knowledge, freshwater resources, arctic coastal areas, living marine resources, marine infrastructure and transport, offshore development, and the arts - strongly indicate the use of pragmatic pluralism, the mutual tolerance of contested understandings in pursuit of a set of goals, and communities of practice, experts who care deeply about a subject but have diverse expertise, as modes of knowledge generation that can foster integrated planning. The findings also support an incremental largely decentralized approach to addressing system transformation - but not one that is ad hoc. We suggest international collaboration in goal setting in combination with regional and local scale restructuring of participants, institutions, and problem-sets to account for the interconnectedness and complexity of arctic processes. Two examples are (1) the role of indigenous knowledge in arctic offshore hydrocarbon development and environmental hazard mitigation and (2) coastal community relocation processes. In both cases gathering stakeholder experts with insight into different components of the system and awareness of options under consideration in their sector can help detect early-onset indicators of major change as well as foster coordinated and potentially collaborative approaches toward achieving sustainable goals associated with different potential Arctic futures.

11h00 - A Foresight Approach to Exploring the Long-term Future of the North

L. Macklin, A. Meisen

1Alberta Innovates-Technology Futures, Edmonton, Canada

In 2011, Alberta Innovates-Technology Futures (AITF) launched a major foresight initiative with international participants, drawn from different disciplines and jurisdictions, to gain a deep understanding of the key forces and factors, together with their interplay, that will shape northern development patterns by mid-century. Initial emphasis was placed on transportation and and communications since they are critical determinants for accessing the North's natural resources and for changes in global trade routes, demographics, employment, quality of life and culture. Potential climate change, advances in technology and geopolitical developments were also taken into consideration. The insights and understandings gained from the project are being used by AITF and other participants to identify the long-term future challenges and opportunities the North may present, with the view to initiating appropriate actions now.

In the first phase of the project, a modified scenario creation approach was employed by the participants in a three-day, intensive forum in Jasper, Alberta. Several forces and factors were identified that will make accelerated development of Northern Circumpolar Regions real and likely in the first half of the 21st century, including rising global demand for natural resources, changing climatic conditions and advances in technology ( i.e. marine transportation technology in ice-prone waters). As a result, pan-continental transportation links through the circumpolar regions of Europe, Asia and North America will arise and, together with ubiquitous communication capacity, will open the circumpolar frontier in ways that are profoundly different from the past. International trade routes will shift, corporate investment will be stimulated and new economic and social opportunities will materialize, especially for the native people of the North. Under all scenarios, the North will play an increasingly important role in the global economy and affairs.

The degree and pace of change will depend upon on several factors, including global economic conditions and geopolitics. High volatility in the financial markets and geopolitical instability could make heavy capital investments in transportation and communications infrastructure as well as natural resource extraction difficult. However, geopolitical instability could also cause governments to build such infrastructure to secure and defend northern boarders and transportation routes.

Although the Project is still ongoing, it has already provided valuable guidance to AITF, other organizations and policy makers on actions that should be taken now to further the development of the North for the benefit of Northern people of others. The key findings will be presented, together with an outline and objectives of future phases of the Project.

11h15 - Discussion

11h30 - Discussion

11h45 - Discussion

10h00 - 12h00 2.2.8 Environmental Consequences of Change

Room: 520AChairs: Jeanna Gall, Heather Mariash and Julia Schmale

10h00 - Physical Constrains and Productivity in the Arctic Ocean: The Rapid Climate Change Trajectories into the Future

P. Wassmann

1Institute of Arctic and Marine Biology, Faculty of Biosciences, fisheries and economy, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway

Physical constrains and productivity in the Arctic Ocean are investigated through are investigated through the physically-biologically coupled, 3D SINMOD model. The model was run with IPPC B1 and A1B forcing up to 2099, but the control run for the present climate scenario had atmospheric forcing from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalysis data. The model indicates major changes in the physical oceanography of the Arctic Ocean, reflected in increased light and decrease freshwater (reduced ice cover and thickness) and generally decreasing surface water nitrate concentrations. Primary production increases both in the Arctic Basin and along the Eurasian shelves from approximately 10 to 40 and 30 to 60 g C m-2 y-1, respectively. In contrast, primary production in the Barents Sea was on average more or less constant (ca. 100 g C m-2 y-1), but increased and decreased in the north and south, respectively. For secondary production (key mesozooplankton species Calanus finmarchicus and C. glacialis) the changes are more complex. In many regions the Atlantic C. finmarchicus replaces his leaner congener C. glacialis, this has wide ramifications for top predators through the key species capelin. Secondary production changes are unevenly distributed spatially during future warming with the most significant increases occurring along the Eurasian shelves and the Chukchi Sea. Towards the end of the century the harvestable production will decrease in most Arctic Ocean regions, but there are increases along the shelf breaks.

10h15 -  Modeling Broad Scale Ecosystem Implications of Ocean Acidification and Climate Change to Antarctic Coastal Benthic Communities

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C. Guy1, V. Cummings1, D. Lohrer2

1National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Wellington, New Zealand2National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Hamilton, New Zealand

Anthropogenically driven environmental change is becoming ever more apparent worldwide, particularly in polar regions. Ocean acidification (OA), where ocean pH is reduced due to absorption of atmospheric CO2, reduces carbonate abundance (required to build and maintain skeletal structures) and disrupts acid/base balance, affecting basic physiological functions. The effect is exacerbated in cold waters where calcite and aragonite levels are naturally depleted. Additionally, the 1-6°C temperature rise predicted for the Antarctic continent over the next century will alter sea ice extent, thickness and persistence which in turn will have ramifications for primary production and the food web as a whole. Environmental change in polar regions is expected to be stronger and occur sooner than more temperate areas. Species in these areas are adapted to narrow, stable ecological limits and as a result are more likely to negatively impacted by OA and temperature change. As such predictive models produced using polar data may give insight into potential future effects in more temperate regions.

The physiological responses of single species and different life history stages to varying pH and temperature has been investigated reasonably well, with new case studies frequently appearing in the literature. However, the broad scale ecosystem impacts of warming and OA have not been addressed to date. Here we describe multifactorial, dynamic models of the Antarctic coastal benthic ecosystem that incorporate parameters which are most likely to be sensitive to future OA and warming. These models, based on real data, combine field results with those of laboratory experiments investigating physiological responses of key Antarctic bivalves, Laternula elliptica and Adamussium colbecki to near-future pH levels. By integrating information from these studies into the models, we aim to predict responses of these populations to environmental change. This talk will describe the models and, particularly, the implications of our findings to coastal ecosystems of which these bivalves are key functional component.

10h30 - Removal of the Arctic Ice Cap by Global Warming: Effects on Underwater Ambient Noise and Marine Mammal Soundscapes and
Communication Range

Y. Simard1,2, B. Kinda3, C. Gervaise4, L. Fortier5

1Université du Québec à Rimouski, Rimouski, Canada2Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Mont-Joli, Canada3ENSTA Bretagne, Brest, France4GIPSA Lab, Saint-Martin d'Hères, France5Université Laval, Québec, Canada

The steady recession of the Arctic ice cap and the associated lengthening of the ice-free season are two major effects of present global warming. Immediate consequences of the gradual removal of Arctic ice cap on marine ecosystems, especially on marine mammals, extend beyond the simple withdrawing of a solid habitat for pagophilic species such as seals or the emblematic polar bear. Change of the pristine underwater soundscape in response to increasing the exposure of the ocean surface to natural sound sources, such as wind and waves, and eventually to new anthropogenic sources arising with the acceleration of the economic development, especially shipping and oil and gas activities, is one of these elusive impacts of global warming on marine ecosystems.

The underwater soundscapes of the Arctic are largely unknown besides. Short-term, dedicated and partial acoustic studies have indeed been undertaken in the Arctic, but a thorough characterisation of soundscapes over a complete annual cycle in relation with the ice cover has is still missing. The present study wants to fill this knowledge gap by analysing a 13-month acoustic dataset recorded from a moored autonomous hydrophone in Beaufort Sea, Canada, in 2005-2006. An ambient noise extraction algorithm was developed to obtain the annual time-series of the natural soundscape over a 4-kHz bandwidth, exclusive of transient sounds due to biological or physical sources. Under-ice ambient noise spectra clearly differed from open-water ones, as evidenced from unsupervised classification analysis. The observed present pristine natural soundscape in this part of the Arctic Ocean is compared to other soundscapes of the world where the chronic contributions of anthropogenic sources are prominent. The effect of the gradual lengthening of the open-water season in response to global warming is estimated from the observed seasonal change, with the expected consequences on marine mammal communication ranges.

10h45 - Climate Change and Boreal Wildland Fire Activity

M.D. Flannigan1,2, W.J. de Groot3, B.M. Wotton3,4

1University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada2Natural Resources Canada, Edmonton, Canada3Natural Resources Canada, Sault Ste Marie, Canada4Natural Resources Canada, Toronto, Canada

Wildland fire is a global feature resulting from interactions between climate/weather, vegetation and people. Our climate and associated day-to-day weather may be changing rapidly due to human activities that may have dramatic and unexpected impacts on regional and global fire regimes. Existing studies suggest a general overall increase in area burned and fire occurrence although there is a lot of spatial variability, with some areas of no change or even decreases in area burned and occurrence. The onset of climate change has been rapid and more significant in boreal regions as compared to other parts of the world. Fire activity has already been increasing in many parts of the boreal regions and many studies suggest that this trend will continue and may even intensify. There is a potential for positive feedback as the boreal contains 30-40% of the terrestrial carbon with much of this in peatlands that may be vulnerable to increased fire activity and fire severity (depth of burn). A warmer world means a longer fire season, more lightning activity which is responsible for most of the area burned in the boreal and drier fuels that would contribute to fire occurrence and spread. In terms of fire management, enhanced fire danger rating systems that accurately predict the spatial and temporal variability in fire danger can help us adapt to a warmer world.

11h00 -  Feedbacks between Shrubland Development and Permafrost in the Northwest Siberian Low Arctic

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G.V. Frost1, H.E. Epstein1, D.A. Walker2, G. Matyshak3, K. Ermokhina4

1University of Virginia, Charlottesville, USA2University of Alaska, Fairbanks, USA3Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia4Earth Cryoshpere Institute, Tyumen, Russia

Introduction: Shrubification has the potential to influence many biophysical attributes of Arctic landscapes including community structure and composition, surface energy balance, hydrology, and permafrost thermal regime. Experimental and simulation-modeling studies have repeatedly shown that expansion of deciduous shrubs is likely to accompany climate-warming in Low Arctic tundra. These findings have been corroborated by observational studies, particularly in the North American Arctic. The Eurasian Arctic, however, has received less attention. Here, we integrate satellite- and ground-based observations to quantify recent expansion of alder (Alnus) shrublands and assess feedbacks between cryogenic disturbance, shrubland development, and permafrost thermal regime in the northwest Siberian Low Arctic.

Methods: We compared high-resolution satellite imagery to quantify changes in alder cover since the 1960s within three widely-separated tundra ecotones in northwest Siberia. Images were co-registered and shrubland cover was quantified using a point-intercept sampling approach. We also identified geomorphic features associated with newly-established shrublands. Field surveys at one site (Kharp) revealed that nearly all shrubland expansion had occurred on sorted-circle microsites in patterned ground. We recorded soil profiles and mapped the locations of alders and patterned ground landforms along transects in shrublands at varying stages of development. We also recorded soil temperature profiles, shrub height, and Leaf Area Index (LAI) to evaluate feedbacks between shrubification and ground thermal regime.

Results and Discussion: Satellite data show that alder shrubland cover increased from 5-15% at the sites since ∼1968 and that much of the expansion occurred on cryogenic disturbances. At Kharp, transect maps and soil profiles show that shrub distribution in expansion belts mirrors that of underlying sorted-circles. Additionally, most shrubs in mature stands occur on circle microsites that have become obscured by vegetation. Soil temperature profiles indicate that dramatic changes in ground thermal regime occur with shrubland development. Sharp contrasts in circle/inter-circle thermal regime diminish after shrub colonization and initial patterns of microsite variation become inverted later in shrubland development, causing differential heave and cryogenic disturbance to cease. Vegetation changes at the other sites underscore the importance of cryogenic disturbances in promoting shrubland development; virtually all expansion at a second site (Tazovksiy) was associated with active layer detachments.

Conclusions: We documented extensive recent alder expansion at three disparate tundra ecotones in northwest Siberia. We conclude that disturbed microsites, such as exposed circles and active layer detachments, are 'hotspots' for rapid changes in land-cover and ecosystem state in the southernmost Low Arctic because they comprise favorable seedbeds for fast-growing shrubs such as alder. Shrubification initiates a cascade of effects on soil thermal properties and energy balance; although alder expansion in tundra greatly reduces surface albedo, canopy shading, organic matter deposition, and facilitation of moss growth strongly buffer the active layer against changes in climate.

11h15 - Arctic Shrub Patch Dynamics Associated with Topographically-Derived Hydrologic Characteristics

A.T. Naito, D.M. Cairns

1Texas A&M University, College Station, USA

Shrub expansion is a global phenomenon that is gaining increased attention in the Arctic. Recent work employing the use of repeat oblique aerial photographs suggested that shrub expansion has been occurring throughout the North Slope of Alaska since the middle of the 20th century. The greatest increases in shrub cover occurred in valley slopes and floodplains within river valleys. This work also suggested that shrub expansion could be characterized by increases in shrub size, increases in the number of shrubs, and in-filling of areas between shrubs. Variability in hydrologic conditions like soil moisture and groundwater flow is largely controlled by topographic characteristics. A topographic wetness index provides one means for assessing and characterizing these conditions. We explored the relationship between Arctic shrubs and fluvial characteristics at five sites along rivers (Colville, Killik, Nanushuk, and Nimiuktuk) throughout the northern Brooks Range and North Slope uplands. Our objectives were to determine: 1) changes in area of shrubs using aerial photography, and 2) the existence of an association between the TWI and shrub expansion.

We acquired 1970s vertical aerial photographs and high-resolution QuickBird, GeoEye-1, and IKONOS imagery from the 2000s for the five sites. The aerial photographs were georectifed to the high-resolution imagery. Images were then classified to identify shrubs patches using the ISODATA unsupervised classification algorithm. Change detection between the two raster maps for each site was facilitated by using map algebra to 'subtract' the 2000s map from the 1970s map. The resulting maps classified pixels into one of three categories (1, 0, and -1), representing gain, no change, and loss, respectively. We then characterized patterns of development using FRAGSTATS metrics including patch density and mean nearest neighbor distance between patches. To investigate an association between shrub cover change and TWI, each landscape was sampled using 2000 points. Digital elevation models (30.88 m resolution) for each site were processed to calculate a TWI value for each pixel. Each sampled point was spatially associated to the change detection maps and TWI value. Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to assess the statistical significance of differences of frequency distributions of TWI within each change category.

Change in total shrub cover ranged from -0.65% to 46.56%. Historic shrub patch development generally exhibited a decrease in patch density and an increase in the mean distance between patches. Wilcoxon rank sum tests determined that TWI frequency distributions for sampled points that gained shrub cover were significantly higher than those that lost cover (Z = 2.1006, p=0.0178) as well as those experiencing no change (Z = 4.1085, p < 0.01).

Discussion and conclusion
Our statistical testing suggests a significant association between shrub development and topographically-derived hydrologic characteristics. Since the 1970s, shrubs have generally expanded into areas of greater TWI values. This means that shrubs are preferentially developing in areas that have a greater potential for moisture accumulation or a high level of drainage. Visual inspection of the aerial images confirms that valley slope shrubs are expanding upslope along hillslope water tracks.

Keywords: shrub expansion, vegetation change, landscape analysis, hydrology, topographic wetness index, Arctic, Alaska

11h30 - Variations in Growth-ring Structure in Polar Willow (Salix polaris Wahlenb.) as the Indicator of Contemporary Climate and
Environmental Changes in the High Arctic

P. Owczarek, K. Migala

1Institute of Geography and Regional Development, University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw,

This study demonstrates the possibility of analyzing modern environmental changes using ring-width series of polar willow (Salix polaris Wahlenb.) from the Spitsbergen Island. The Spitsbergen is the largest island in the Svalbard archipelago (the High Arctic area). The island is covered in the about 60% with glaciers. The rest part is occupied by polar desert and tundra community, which consists of low creeping dwarf shrubs and different species of mosses, herbs and lichens. One of the most common wooden plant on the Spitsbergen is polar willow. It is creeping dwarf shrub usually less than 8 cm tall which commonly forms mats. S. polaris have well-defined growth-rings which ranged from 0.2 mm to less than 0.01 mm in width. The potential of this arctic shrub for development of tree-ring chronology has not yet been explored. 41 samples of S. polaris were collected in the vicinity of the Polish Polar Research Station in the SW Spitsbergen (77° 00'N, 15° 33' E) during arctic summers 2007-2011. Complete individuals including the root and branch systems were taken from flat area of high marine terrace (15-25 m a.s.l.). Microtome sections of 15-20 µm thickness were prepared from the whole diameter of selected sections using a GSL 1 sledge microtome. Discontinuous rings, missing rings as well as asymmetric geometry of the stem constrict the synchronisation of growth curves. These disadvantageous features caused that many of the sections were difficult to crossdate and only twenty four stem were used to develop the chronology. All samples were visually crossdated using skeleton plots. The accuracy was verified using COFECHA program. The chronology spans 74 years (1935 - 2009). Research have shown considerable variation the growth-ring width. Average width of annual rings has increased significantly in the last two decades. These changes highly correlated with the growth of temperature and sum of summer and fall precipitation observed for the region. The dendrochronological/dendroclimatological data well describe general state of tundra and indicate events of extreme weather, which force mass movement processes, e.g. debris flows. Field observations show that debris flow processes attains the highest intensity in the first and last phase of the short arctic summer. The dendrochronology approach confirms this statement, as the resulting dates for more intense debris flow activity correlate well with an increase of amount of extreme precipitation events during the summer months. Both the records of air temperature and precipitation in the SE Spitsbergen and the current intensive recession of the local glaciers reflect global warming effects. Dendrochronological research confirms this trend and indicate that dwarf shrubs such as polar willow have great potential in determining the dynamic of modern environmental changes in the High Arctic area.

11h45 -  Linking Animal Migration, Spring Weather and Timing of Breeding in an Arctic Herbivore

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P.L.F. Fast1,2, M. Doiron2,3, G. Gauthier2,3, J.A. Schmutz4, D.C. Douglas4, J. Madsen5, J.Y. Takekawa6, J. Yee6, J. Bêty1,2

1Université du Québec à Rimouski, Rimouski, Canada2Centre d'études nordiques, Quebec City, Canada3Université Laval, Quebec City, Canada4U.S. Geological Survey - Alaska Science Center, Anchorage/Juneau, USA5Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark6U. S. Geological Survey - Western Ecological Research Center, Vallejo, USA

Climate change has raised many questions about the capacity of migratory wildlife to adapt to rapidly changing environmental conditions. Animals that migrate to northern latitudes each summer are numerous, and may be particularly vulnerable if environmental conditions at their wintering, migration stopover, and breeding areas change at different rates. Disparate rates of environmental change along migration routes could lead to an imbalance, or mismatch, between when migrants have evolved to breed versus when it would be optimal to breed. Timing of breeding is highly constrained in Arctic systems, and growth and survival of juvenile herbivores is sensitive to seasonal variations in forage availability and nutritional quality. Here, we study a migratory herbivore, the greater snow goose (Anser caerulescens atlanticus) to investigate: (1) the importance of migratory stopover sites to provide energy for breeding; (2) whether conditions at wintering and migration stopover sites give useful signals about the timing of vegetation phenology at their northern breeding grounds; and (3) how capable geese are at adjusting their nesting chronology to align hatch dates with peak food quality for goslings.

Greater snow geese winter on the eastern seaboard of the United States and migrate approximately 4000 km to their high Arctic breeding grounds, while using habitats en route for fuelling the energetic costs of migration and breeding. We conducted isotopic analysis of abdominal fat samples, and found that geese imported nutrients over 3000 km, from Southern staging sites to their Arctic breeding grounds. Fat reserves available to breeding birds came mostly from southern habitats, and geese supplemented their fat stores at northern sites. We documented timing of vegetation growth at wintering, migration stopover and breeding sites using NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) derived from 28-year record (1982-2009) of satellite remote sensing imagery. The degree of concordance of green up on migratory staging areas with green up on breeding areas was low below 65°N, making it difficult for geese on early spring migration to judge when to make their northward movements. Because many Arctic-nesting birds start producing their eggs several days before arriving at their breeding sites, poorly matched climate trends between migration stopover and breeding sites could further increase the risk that timing of nesting may be suboptimal. Long-term vegetation phenology and goose nesting records from Bylot Island, Nunavut suggest that geese often have poorly-timed breeding. When timing of hatch does not coincide with the timing of high quality vegetation for goslings (based on NDVI or peak nitrogen concentration measured from plants), individual growth and survival of goslings may be reduced.

Arctic migrants already face the challenge of timing their migration to optimize their reproductive performance. Arctic ecosystems are generally warming more rapidly than other ecosystems, which can lead to a greater likelihood of mismatch between actual and optimal timing of breeding. Because cues along the migration path can be important to mitigating potential timing mismatches on breeding areas, knowledge of environmental change along migratory pathways can aid in predicting the impact of climate warming on Arctic migrants.

10h00 - 12h00 3.1.6 Knowledge to Action: Achievements, Challenges and Ways Forward

Room: 513EFChairs: Oran Young & Jennie Knopp

Video segment highlighting knowledge to action in research and projects presented throughout the conference.

10h00-12h00 - The Northern Research Forum : A Case Study on Circumpolar Cooperation

M. Cela

1University of Lapland, Rovaniemi, Finland

The Arctic is a region that provides great opportunities for researchers as it is a peaceful and stable area. Yet, the societies in the High North and the Arctic are challenged in many ways not the least because of the melting ice and the influence it may have on future policymaking of the circumpolar states. The challenges the region faces today have to do with climate change and globalization and are beyond what any single state can deal with on its own. Further, the region is already highly globalized and has states communicating and operating within the area, as well as various kinds of international organizations, nongovernmental organizations, national and multinational corporations that all have declared interests in the Arctic and influence the policies of the Arctic states. To maintain peace and stability in the area it is important to keep building a solid scientific knowledge base that policymakers can turn to, in order to gather information which they can use when forming their policy. Nonetheless, it is important to remember that the Arctic is subject to rapid changes, both because of human activity and forces of nature and these changes must be monitored in a scientific way.

The Northern Research Forum was initiated by the president of Iceland in 1998 and held its first open assembly in Iceland in 2000. The forum has organized six open assemblies in various Northern locations. The themes of the assemblies have developed according to the most relevant and pressing issues each time. The change becomes obvious when the theme of the first assembly 'North Meets North' is compared to the theme of the sixth assembly 'Our Ice Dependent World' where not only the south was brought in, but also stakeholders representing the third pole - the Himalayas. The NRF serves as a platform or a 'town square' for a productive dialogue among members of the research community and other stakeholders. By creating a platform for a dialogue between the different sectors NRF helps by diminishing boarders between science and politics, and bringing in new ways for using science in a manner that promotes policy-making built on scientific findings and well speculated facts and figures. In today's world of uncertainty it is important to learn from history and lay the ground for policymaking to be founded on the knowledge science provides. In the same context different branches of science must come together in an interdisciplinary way, each providing their own piece of the puzzle. Without a holistic picture, a holistic policy is hardly to be expected.

This paper will look at the NRF as a model for a new kind of governance, built on the interplay of science and politics. Furthermore, it will examine how the NRF has developed and contributed to the international community. The aim of using the NRF as a case study is to get a clearer picture of the changed geopolitical environment in the High North, and of increased opportunities that can be found in the region in order to build confidence and comprehensive cooperation.

10h00-12h00 - International Cooperative Initiatives on Long-term Polar Observations, Research and Services for the Benefit of Humankind

B. Angle

1Meteorological Service of Canada, Ottawa, Canada

For over a century, humankind has conducted scientific investigations in Polar Regions and the cryosphere. Starting in 1882-1883, with IPY-1, and continuing in 1932-1933, 1957-1958 and 2007-2008 with IPY 2, 3 and 4, an increasing number of countries have pooled their resources together to launch intensive observations and research programs.

Today, nearly one hundred countries and countless organizations and institutions have programmes designed to observe, monitor and predict changes taking place in cold climate regions. These support, inter alia, Arctic and Antarctic transportation operations, sea-ice monitoring and water management issues in the Third Pole region (Himalaya-Karakorum-Pamir, and other high mountains). These collective efforts have contributed to the modern realization that the globe is a unified system where all components interact very closely. Thus, understanding cold climate processes leads to significant benefits for all nations.

Until recently the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) had no coordinating body for its diverse activities in the Polar Regions. This situation was corrected in 2008 when WMO established the Executive Council Panel of Experts on Polar Observations, Research and Services (EC-PORS). Its role is to provide oversight of WMO Polar activities and to integrate programmes building on the foundation of the International Polar Year 2007-2008. Since then, EC-PORS has helped to focus the attention of WMO Member States on how changes witnessed in the Polar Regions or occurring in the cryosphere affect global weather and climate.

Recognizing this, the Sixteenth World Meteorological Congress, held in Geneva in May 2011, agreed to a number of long term initiatives including the definition of the Antarctic Observing Network (AntON), the concept of a Global Integrated Polar Prediction System (GIPPS), and the implementation of the Global Cryosphere Watch (GCW). Underlying these activities, the broader community is exploring modalities for improved coordination to maximize the value of our investments.

The WMO World Weather Research Programme (WWRP) Project on Improvement of Weather and Environmental Prediction in Polar Regions, the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Polar Climate Predictability initiative, and the research urgencies in the Polar Regions identified by the International Council for Science (ICSU) affiliates with polar interests, converge to focus scientific energy on Polar Regions and address their links to ICSU's Grand Challenges in Global Sustainability. These foundational enterprises build on the design and coordination of present and future observation networks (surface and space-based) and the assimilation of data generated by these systems into models providing predictions from hours to decades. Together, they aim to tailor and disseminate a diverse suite of environmental observation and prediction-based products for policy and decision-making for a broad spectrum of stakeholders.

Given that the focus of the 3rd and final officially planned international conference by the IJC for IPY 2007-2008 is to explore linkages between IPY science, and action (policy and services), a series of presentations will set the stage for a panel discussion that will explore opportunities to strengthen the partnership to deliver science-based services in Polar Regions. Presentations will consist of:

  • Overview of WMO polar initiatives;
  • Overview of the International Arctic Science Committee (IASC) activities;
  • Overview of Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) activities;
  • Existing and planned polar observation initiatives;
  • WWRP / WCRP prediction research initiatives contributing to the Global Integrated Polar Prediction System (GIPPS);
  • Translation of monitoring, research and prediction into service applications;
  • Contribution of polar initiatives to the Global Cryosphere Watch (GCW) and the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS); and
  • Concept of a long-term polar international cooperative initiative developed by the Steering Group of the Consultative Process

Based on the presentations, the Panel will stimulate new discussions of the concept for a long-term polar international cooperative initiative as presented by the representatives of the Consultative Process, with a view to strengthen coordination, cooperation and planning of long-term efforts to improve polar observations, research and services.

The panellists will consist of representatives from WMO, UNESCO-IOC, ICSU, UNEP and CEOS.

10h00-12h00 - Arctic Collaborative Environment (ACE): A New Multinational Collaboration for Awareness, Research, and Operational Decision

P. Clemente-Colon5, G. Wade1, M. Kress1, J. McCracken2, S. Spehn3, S. Tanner4

1Von Braun Center For Science & Innovation (VCSI), Huntsville, USA2National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Huntsville, USA3U.S. European Command (USEUCOM), Stuttgart, Germany4University of Alabama In Huntsville, Huntsville, USA5Naval / National Ice Center

The Arctic Collaborative Environment (ACE) is an ongoing international project to provide an internet-based, open-access, Arctic-focused, environmental research and decision-support system that integrates data from existing remote sensing assets with products from existing and new environmental models to provide monitoring, analysis, and visualization based on earth observation data and modeling. As part of these products, ACE will integrate buoy data and fuse active and passive data to produce new environmental data sets. These products will be layered within Google Earth and integrated within the Real-Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) interface developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACE is the initial, Arctic-focused capability within the broader Partnering Earth Observations for People Living Environmentally (PEOPLE) project. ACE will enable local, regional, and international cooperation and coordination on long-term environmental planning and near-term actions in response to climatic and environmental changes occurring in the Arctic Region.

The ACE team has collected Arctic information requirements from a spectrum of Arctic operators to characterize and prioritize the missions and functions of these operators in the Arctic. From these, the ACE team characterized and prioritized the tasks and activities performed as well as the capabilities required to achieve those missions and functions. The team then developed a prioritized list of Arctic environmental datasets necessary to provide the information to enable these activities.

With these Arctic environmental data requirements, the team has identified available Arctic environmental data that the ACE system will: access; ingest; integrate; merge; transform; geo-rectify; visualize; and transmit to users for layered display on any system with internet access, to include mobile platforms such as smartphones and tablets. The ACE system will also provide remote users the ability to upload data in the form of text, photos, and videos, for display to other users in the ACE system.

The team will conduct an operational demonstration of the collaborative and decision-support capabilities of ACE within the venue of an Arctic Search & Rescue (SAR) Table-Top Exercise (TTX) in the Fall of 2012, with a full transition of the capability to the National Ice Center (NIC) in early 2013.

When complete, the ACE system will bring together numerous IPY-funded observations and models into a coherent visualization and collaboration tool that supports environmental research, operations, and indigenous activities in the Arctic.

10h00-12h00 - Circumpolar Indigenous Youth Panel – Youth Voices from the Circumpolar North

J. Kuptana3, P Gerrard1,  IISD Intern (TBA)1, L. Barber2, M. Watts2,  Indigenous Youth Panelists (TBA)

1International Institute for Sustainable Development, Winnipeg, Canada2Centre for Earth Observation Science – University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada3IISD - Circumpolar Youth Leaders Program

Never has it been a more critical time to inspire, engage, network and train young people to meet the issues facing the Arctic Regions. In many areas of the arctic, youth under the age of 30 make up over half of the population, and yet their engagement in arctic governance, policy and science remains relatively low. Young people in the North see firsthand the impacts of global change on their environments and communities. They have a strong understanding of social media and global connections and in many cases are a bridge between traditional knowledge and the current technology. In order to secure the future of the Arctic, we need to listen to and engage these young people to contribute to strategies and policies, and become vehicles for positive change.

The IPY Conference in Montreal is an opportunity to examine a Northern Youth perspective on the issues which are affecting the Arctic today. To facilitate this process the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) and Schools on Board (SonB), are implementing a joint program which will bring a group of Youth Leaders from across the circumpolar north together to learn from each other. This team of northern youth will be part of a series of online discussion forums and training modules aimed at building teamwork, leadership and a common understanding of arctic Issues. They will identify and discuss the issues that they are most concerned about, consider traditional knowledge and understanding of these issues and debate how to make the bridge from knowledge to action both in their own lives and in Arctic governance and management.

The Northern Youth Leaders will be given the opportunity to present and respond to questions at a panel session as part of the Schools on Board Arctic Climate Change Youth Forum hosted by Lower Canada College in Montreal and held in conjunction with the IPY 2012 conference.

This Circumpolar Indigenous Youth Session will present the youth perspective on the impacts of climate change in northern communities from across the circumpolar north. A core group 5 Indigenous Youth will form a panel to present their views and answer questions from the floor. Specific topics for discussion will be selected by the Youth Leaders themselves over the course of the leadership program and will focus on their perspectives of arctic climate change and how we can move from knowledge to action in this rapidly changing world. If there is acceptance by IPY for this one-hours session, a high level Northern Canadian Leader will be identified to moderate the discussion and draw attention to the importance of the Youth Voice.

10h00-12h00 - Monitoring and Assessing Pollution and Climate Change in the Arctic. AMAPs Influence on Actions to Protect the Arctic and Its

L.-O. Reiersen1, S. Wilson1, R. Shearer2, M.S. Olsen3, O. Mähönen4

1AMAP Secretariat, Oslo, Norway2Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, Ottawa, Canada3Danish Energy Agency, Copenhagen, Denmark4Ministry of Environment, Rovaniemi, Finland

Over the past 20 years, the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) has built a solid reputation as the pre-eminent source of sound scientific information on a range of Arctic pollution and climate related issues for policy-making. This information has been used to develop policy-relevant science-based recommendations that have been communicated to decision-makers both within the Arctic and beyond.

AMAP reports to the Arctic Council, and through the Arctic Council delivers its assessment findings and recommendations to the governments of the eight Arctic countries (Canada, Denmark/Greenland, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russia, Sweden and USA).

AMAPs scientific assessments are produced by independent groups of scientitists and are subject to comprehensive peer review. On the basis of these assessments, the AMAP Working Group, composed of representatives of the Arctic countries, permanent participants and observing countries and organizations, develops policy-relevant advice. The assessments also address gaps in scientific knowledge and propose actions to fill these gaps. In this way, AMAP acts as a bridge between science and political decision making, with close connections to both communities.

AMAP results have successfully influenced on, and to some extent been instrumental in initiating international agreements and policies to address pollution at the global scale. These include the POPs and Heavy Metals Protocols to the UN ECE Convention on Long-range Transported Air Pollution (LRTAP), the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, and the UNEP process aimed at developing an international agreement on mercury. Furthermore, AMAP information has been reflected in the work of the IPCC aswell as a number of regional initiatives, such as the projects conducted under the Arctic Council's Action Plan on pollution and the Nordic Environment Corporation (NEFCO) funded activities, in particular those aimed at identifying and remediating contamination sources in northwestern Russia and the Barents region.

The presentation will give an overview of work perfomed by AMAP since it was formed in 1991, challenges faced, and some key results.

10h00-12h00 - 5 Years Later: The Legacy of IPY 2007-09

M. Treadwell

1Lieutenant Governor of Alaska, Anchorage, USA

After IPY, the eight nations of the Arctic Council agreed in May 2011 to sponsor SAON (the Sustained Arctic Observing Network) jointly with IASC (the International Arctic Science Committee). This establishes a legacy for IPY that was sought before IPY began. This paper discusses new linkages between a scientific observation/monitoring plan and political cooperation - the Arctic Council connection is intended to result in a better capitalized, more sustained observing network than would be achieved by the IASC science agencies going alone. The Arctic Council builds closer ties for SAON to national and local governments, political leaders, indigenous groups, businesses operating in the Arctic, and resource management agencies who will both fund - and benefit from - the datasets and investigations fostered by SAON. The paper recommends methods to use the Council process to achieve the SAON plan, and how to merge the need for long-term monitoring with the traditional, NSF shorter-term grant cycle. SAON's expected contribution to the other work of the Council in marine safety, emergency response, conservation of flora and fauna, environmental restoration and sustainable development is also discussed.

10h00-12h00 - APECS: Achievements, Challenges and Ways Forward in Shaping the Future of Polar Research

Yulia Zaika

M.V.Lomonosov Moscow State University

The Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS) is an international and interdisciplinary organization for undergraduate and graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, early faculty members, educators and others with interests in Polar Regions and the wider cryosphere. The main goal of APECS is to share knowledge on how to deal with urgent issues that young scientists face.

10h00-12h00 - A Proposal by the Canadian Land Claims Agreements Coalition to the IPY 2012 From Knowledge to Action Conference

K. McKay1, C. Towtongie2

1Chair, Nisga'a Nation; First Nation Co-chair, Land Claims Agreements Coalition2President, Nunavut Tunngavik Inc.; Inuit Co-chair, Land Claims Agreements Coalit

Indigenous peoples in the circumpolar north are not powerless actors in the nation states in which they reside. In the last few decades, many Indigenous peoples have acquired significant influence and various measures of power to determine their own futures and that of their homelands. A rebalancing is underway between the southern metropolis and its northern hinterland. This rebalancing takes many political, constitutional and institutional forms including: land claims and self-government agreements in northern Canada, home rule followed by self-rule in Greenland, and Sami Parliaments in Norway, Sweden and Finland. Translating knowledge into action in the circumpolar north, particularly in the social sciences, increasingly requires the engagement of these often newly established institutions and processes.

The circumpolar north is often portrayed through competing metaphors: the homeland of Indigenous peoples or the industrial frontier of corporations and national governments. When applied through institutions and processes of self-governance can science and knowledge narrow the gap between these competing metaphors and the public policies they inform? Would decisions then be more likely to promote development that is environmentally and culturally sustainable?

'From Knowledge to Action' Panel Proposal
The Land Claims Agreements Coalition ( proposes a three or four person panel to include representatives of Nunavut Tunngavik Incorporated (NTI) and the Nisga'a Nation, co-chairs of the coalition, and representatives of the Norwegian and/or Swedish Sami. Each panelist will outline a self-governance landscape, discuss how science and information is used to inform decision-making, and specify priority areas and needs for future research. In addition, the panelists will address whether and how their home organizations can develop science and research capabilities and work co-operatively with credentialed scientists in national governments and universities.
Our intent is to 'move on' from the often-repeated debate about scientists consulting Indigenous peoples, to how scientists can work with and serve the further development of self-governance in the circumpolar north. We hope that the panel members will invite the research community to work with Arctic Indigenous Peoples toward an international research agenda for aboriginal self-governance and self-determination and that the panel will stimulate comparative social science research in the circumpolar world. We envisage the panel to be included in Area 3 of the conference: From Knowledge to Action.

Contact Information
Please reply to Patti Black, Coordinator, Land Claims Agreements Coalition
c/o Consilium Consulting Group, 488 Gladstone Ave., Ottawa, Ontario Canada, K1R 5N8

Roundtable with all session presenters.

10h00 - 12h00 3.4.3 Human and Environmental Well-Being

Room: 513DChair: Henning Pederson

10h00 - Opening remarks - Human and environmental well-being

H.S. Pedersen

Centre of Primary Health Care, Greenland

Dr. Henning Sloth Pedersen, physician and Chief Medical Officer in Greenland, will provide opening remarks on the topic of human and environmental well-being. His presentation will raise key themes and questions to be considered by session participants.

10h15 - Improving Access to University Education in the Canadian Arctic: Learning from Past Experiences, Listening to the Inuit Students and
Developping Tools and Policies

T. Rodon1,3, F. Walton2, F. Abele3, D. O'leary2, S. Kennedy3, M. Lachapelle1, T. McKay3, P. Gross3, C. Mearns3

1Université Laval, Québec, Canada2University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, Canada3Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada

Increased participation in postsecondary education is of primary concern for Inuit. The goal of this communication is to present the results of an Action Research on Inuit participation in University education throughout Inuit Nunangat. This research is based on a survey conducted amongst Inuit students with university experience and focus groups conducted in Arviat, Inuvik, Iqaluit and Kuujjuaq. In addition, in-depth interviews were conducted with a selected sample of Inuit students. All the activities were conduced with Inuit researchers.
We will present results on the following issues

  1. Inventory and evaluation of past and present university initiatives in Inuit Nunangat or for Inuit in term of curriculum, delivery methods and success.
  2. A summary of Inuit students' needs and experiences with postsecondary programs or courses allowing a better understanding of educational paths and university successes from the point of view of the Inuit (based on findings from survey, interviews and focus groups)
  3. In addition, the Master of Education (Nunavut) program, lead by the University of Prince Edward Island and largely based in Nunavut, will be presented as a model of improved access to graduate level university programming for Inuit, as reflected in interviews and focus group discussions with current students and previous graduates.

The research team has also developed an action component in the research with two activities:

  1. Building of different scenarios to improve access to university education for Inuit and Northerners in Inuit Nunangat through two workshops convening Northern education stakeholders in Ottawa and Kuujjuaq.
  2. Creation of a website presenting Inuit students experience through short videos, providing information on programs and linking existing and potential Inuit students through an interactive forum.

This research provides evidence-based data on Inuit students' university experience and will promote a national discussion amongst providers of university programs in Inuit Nunangat, Northern institutions and Inuit organizations in order to develop a more coordinated effort in university program delivery and curriculum development.
This research is funded by ArcticNet and conducted in partnership with the Kativik School Board, Nunavut Arctic College and Nunavut Sivuniksavut.

10h30 -  Mental Health and Criminal Justice in Remote Northern Communities

 View Frostbyte

P. Ferrazzi1

1Queen's University

In remote communities in the Far North, the capacity of criminal justice systems to deal with offenders with mental illness is taxed by limited available resources and the absence of specialized 'mental health courts' used in major cities in the south. This problem is contributing to substantial numbers of offenders from northern communities being incarcerated for crimes that have at their root mental illness. This research explores the ability to incorporate principles of therapeutic jurisprudence that guide mental health courts into the criminal court structure and practice of remote communities. The application of therapeutic jurisprudence results in people with mental illness accessing community treatment rather than facing prosecution or incarceration when mental illness is seen as the main cause of criminal behaviour and the approach is appropriate to the nature and circumstances of the offence and the background of the offender. Exploration of the viability of this approach in northern communities is undertaken through a) an exploration of the essential principles of therapeutic jurisprudence and b) mental health support systems that include a community based rehabilitation model and/or the use of remote information technologies. This research addresses a significant health need in isolated northern communities and provides an alternative approach to making criminal justice systems more responsive to mentally ill offenders in small, under-resourced and isolated jurisdictions.

10h45 -  The Mercury Message: One Inuvialuit Community's Knowledge and Perceptions About the Process of Communicating Contaminants

 View Frostbyte

B. Reinfort1,2, G.A. Stern1,2, F. Wang1

1University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada2Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Wininpeg, Canada

Northerners continue to receive information about contaminants and their impacts on wildlife, environmental, and human health. Despite improved message sensitivity, years of considerable effort disseminating this complex information has resulted in only general awareness of contaminants issues. There has been little evaluation of past communication endeavors from the perspectives of Northern residents, and less consideration of communication processes. There exists a need to focus on the way the research process itself is constructed, incorporating a participatory approach that actively involves community members and emphasizes reciprocal knowledge sharing. For researchers to best inform Northerners about contaminants research, it must not be assumed that the best way to communicate results to communities is known without consulting the community members themselves.

Mercury studies conducted through the IPY's CFL System Study, the Northern Contaminants Program, and ArcticNet is used to explore the process of communicating technical contaminants research with the Inuvialuit community of Sachs Harbour, NT, in accessible, relevant, and understandable ways. Community involvement is fundamental to this relationship-centred study, conducted within a participatory framework that challenges the roles of 'researcher' and 'the researched'. Participatory video, used during semi-structured interview and focus group discussions, enables participants to lead the investigative inquiry, facilitate two-way dialogue to incorporate different ways of knowing, determine how their knowledge is represented, and discuss contaminants in the context of Inuvialuit culture and daily life.

Interviews were conducted to discover what participants have retained from past contaminant communication efforts. Early results indicate the variability of perceptions that locals have with regard to contaminants. No clear consensus exists with respect to their causes or effects, which include local, observable concerns such as garbage, leaking oil, or health anomalies in wildlife, in addition to invisible pollutants and toxins traveling from the south that escape local descriptions and whose impacts remain uncertain. Locals acknowledge the importance of learning about contaminants and they are concerned for the health and well-being of future generations and country foods. Perceptions about the nature of contaminants messages are inconsistent: information from researchers is helpful and informative, but also confusing and complicated. Participants have many suggestions for researchers to better communicate in more culturally appropriate ways, which will be incorporated into upcoming focus group discussions. Cognitive mapping will assist on how to best provide specific mercury information to participants without imposing a pre-conceived structural paradigm that could influence their understanding. Thus, a true community-developed message on communicating mercury information can be disseminated both throughout Northern communities and back to researchers to advise on the culturally appropriate construction and delivery of future contaminants messages.

The importance of a collaborative, community-centred focus being used during extended time in Sachs Harbour to build trustworthy relationships is key to successful reciprocal knowledge sharing, and distinguishes this project from previous contaminant-communication efforts. In emphasizing collaborative inquiry, this project aims to be an emancipatory process with potential to increase local capacity in contaminant issues, encouraging Northern involvement, empowerment, and leadership in Arctic research.

11h00 - Adapting to Environmental Change in the Yukon: Transferring Knowledge to Action to Improve Food Security

L.H.M. Chan1,2, S. Wesche1,2, R.C. Schuster2, P. Tobin2, V. Douglas2,  Vuntut Gwitchin First Nation3,  Teslin Tlingit Council4, N. Kassi5, C. Dickson6

1University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada2University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, Canada3Old Crow, Canada4Teslin, Canada5Arctic Health Research Network-Yukon, Whitehorse, Canada6Council of Yukon First Nations, Whitehorse, Canada

Northern Aboriginal communities are particularly vulnerable to climate change - in the context of a range of other stressors - due to their continued reliance on traditional food for health and well-being. In the Yukon, the relationship of First Nations communities to traditional food is not only important for physical health, but also for the role it plays in emotional, spiritual, social, and cultural well-being. Environmental change continues to affect various aspects of traditional food security, including availability, access and quality. This has stimulated the interest of both communities and regional organizations in better understanding these dynamics and actively engaging in adaptation planning for the future.

Since many Yukon communities are experiencing similar challenges, it is important to move beyond the local level and begin developing a series of adaptation planning models to tailor to specific circumstances. Methods for arriving at adaptive strategies for Northern communities are optimized by the application of traditional and contemporary knowledge regarding present and future challenges. Participatory research is an effective approach for addressing such gaps in health research. Additionally, the new northern research paradigm encourages work that is collaborative, interdisciplinary, policy-oriented and reflective of northern priorities. This research responds to these requirements through the engagement of partners at various levels.

Two Yukon communities, Old Crow and Teslin, were selected as contrasting case studies, with the intention of elucidating a broad range of food security challenges and adaptation options. Old Crow (pop. 250) is the most northerly community in the Yukon, located within the traditional territory of the Vuntut Gwitchin First Nation. Residents are particularly dependent on the Porcupine caribou that migrate through their territory. Due to limited access by air and occasional winter road, the cost of market food in Old Crow is considerably higher than in Whitehorse. Teslin (pop. 450) is located 180 km south-east of Whitehorse, within the traditional territory of the Teslin Tlingit Council. Moose are the most frequently consumed land animals, and fish - especially salmon - are also primary contributors to the diet. Due to its location on the Alaska Highway, food costs in Teslin are only slightly higher than in Whitehorse.

Four focus groups of youth, men, women, and resource employees were conducted in each community in 2007 and 2008, respectively. These addressed issues around traditional food consumption, availability of and access to traditional food, and perceived reasons for changes in the traditional diet. Forty-one individual interviews covering similar themes were also completed in Old Crow. An adaptation planning workshop was held in each community in October 2009 to discuss study results and explore local adaptation options.

Subsequently, the Yukon Food Security and Climate Change Risk Assessment Workshop was held in Whitehorse to review community research results and create a five-year food security plan at the territorial level. These activities indicate how multi-level knowledge translation is contributing to policy development in a broader context.

11h15 - Local Responses to Food Insecurity in Iqaluit, Nunavut: The Use of Community Food Programs

M-P. Lardeau1, J. Ford1, G. Healey2, W. Vanderbilt1

1McGill University, Montreal, Canada2Arctic Health Research Network - Qaujigiartiit, Iqaluit, Canada

Introduction: Food insecurity occurs when food systems are stressed so that food is not accessible, available, and/or of sufficient quality, and is a chronic problem affecting Inuit settlements in Canada. In Nunavut, for instance, 56% of the Inuit population is estimated to be food-insecure, with community studies indicating prevalence ranging from 50 to 80%. Community food programs have been initiated in some larger communities (e.g. Iqaluit, Inuvik, Arviat), including the development of food banks and soup kitchens. Support mechanisms of this nature are a recent development in the Arctic and reflect the challenges faced in the context of rapid modernization, acculturation, and population growth.

Methods: A community based participatory research approach guided the study. We conducted Photovoice workshops in February 2010 and a census of regular clientele of community food programs (n=94) in May 2010. Each participant was first asked a series of fixed-choice close-ended survey questions covering socio-demographic-livelihood characteristics (e.g. age, employment status, household size, where they were born, income sufficiency), food access (hunter in the household, sharing networks), experience of food insecurity, coping mechanisms, and the frequency of use of community food programs. Open ended question were then asked to examine and document perception of the services offered, why they were using the food programs and the nature of food insecurity experienced.

Results: The majority (97%) of participants in this study identified themselves as Inuit, of which 56% were males and 44% were females. The majority of respondents (76%) were born in Iqaluit and of those not originally from Iqaluit, over three quarters were from other Nunavut communities. Most respondents (72%) were unemployed at the time of the survey and 75% lived in a household without a hunter. 62% of participants reported using all 3 services, with the food bank being used the most (79%). Running out of food was a major concern for the majority of the respondents, with 89% reporting that in the last year, there had been times where they had no food in the household and were unable to access any. Coping strategies documented to manage this included switching to cheaper foods that were often less preferred (87%), diminishing portion sizes (72%), diminishing portion sizes of other members of the household (60%), sending people to eat elsewhere (53%) and selling belongings to get money for food (49%).

Conclusion: Community food programs provide an important service to many community members in Iqaluit, Nunavut. Based on the results from this work, recommendations were developed and will be discussed in the session, along with novel ways of disseminating the results with partner organizations, the public and policy makers. A community based intervention emerging from our recommendations is also currently being developed and will be presented.

11h45 - (empty)

10h00 - 12h00 4.5.1 Polar Science goes digital

Room: 514ABChair: Kristen Ulstein

10h00 - Creating New Virtual Learning Tool for Arctic Students

K. Latola1, H. Jóhannsson2, S. Forrest3

1University of Oulu, Finland2Arctic Portal, Akureyri, Iceland3University of Lapland, Rovaniemi, Finland

A three year Arctic Virtual Learning Tools project was established in 2009 with the support from Nordic Council of Ministers. The main objective of the project was to develop new virtual learning tools to be used in online education in Northern educational institutions with easy open access.

The project is a cooperation project between the University of the Arctic, the Arctic Portal, Association of Polar Early Carrier Scientists, International Centre for Reindeer Husbandry, Stefansson Arctic Institute and the University Centre of the West Fjords. It provides inexpensive and flexible educational and networking opportunities within the Arctic, building on advances in educational technology and the constantly improving Internet connectivity in the Northern regions. The VLT is a new approach to distance learning, offering both students and non-registered users access to a wide variety of tools and learning aids such as up-to-date relevant educational, scientific and research data, high level of interoperability and advanced search capabilities as well as numerous advanced virtual learning and communication tools, customizable to each user.

The presentation will give detailed information on the tools available on the website:

10h15 - 'We're Cool Like That': Inuit Youth Speak to the Arctic and Beyond

A. Owingayak, J. Konek, C. Konek, T. Mukyunik, M. Okotak

1Nanisiniq Arviat History Project, Arviat, Canada

The purpose of the Nanisiniq Arviat History project is to bridge the gap between Elders and youth from Arviat, Nunavut. We are working on a documentary film about Inuit history to educate people from Nunavut and also other people from around the world on the importance of keeping our history alive.

Today, the youth researchers, Curtis Konek, Jordan Konek, and Amy Owingayak, will show you how we are using digital media to teach people about our Project and our Inuit history.

The team uses film, photos, Facebook, Twitter, Youtube, and blogging to tell other people about our experiences, our research, and what we have learned. We have over 400 Facebook friends, 200 followers on Twitter, and thousands from around the view our blog each month.

By using digital media we have reached youth, adults, teachers, Government employees, politicians, reporters, and researchers both from our community and across the Arctic. For example, when "Martha's Gang", a music video with Elder Martha Okotak went live, the video's popularity was unexpected and went viral across Nunavut.

Internationally, people from Saudi Arabia, Ethiopia, and South Africa view our blogsite . We have been contacted by filmmakers from Germany and Inuktitut linguists from France.

By using film, blogs, pictures, and virtual film festivals, we have been successful in telling people at home and around the world about our history.

However, the group is not yet finished because there is always more to learn from our Elders. To become a life-long learner of Inuit history, check out our site:

10h30 - Communicating Science in a New Media Landscape: Climate Communication at the National Snow and Ice Data Center

K. Leitzell1, J. Beitler1, S. Renfrow2, W. Meier1

1National Snow and Ice Data Center, Boulder, Colorado, USA2Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, Boulder, Colorado, USA

The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) archives and distributes data related to the frozen areas of the world, including glacier databases and historic photos, a large suite of satellite data, and the data collected by the NASA IceBridge mission. All of our data are freely available, but making data meaningful and accessible to a large audience requires a specific focus on communication. How can a small science organization like ours effectively share our data and science with a large audience? And when we do reach a broader audience, how do we deal with the skepticism and controversy that sometimes result?

In the last five years, NSIDC has transitioned from focusing most of our communication efforts on journalists to providing more information for the general public. These efforts started out as educational Web sites developed in response to questions from our readers. Successful projects now include the Arctic Sea Ice News & Analysis Web site (, which provides monthly or more frequent analysis of sea ice conditions, along with daily updated ice extent data from satellites. The newer Icelights Web site ( complements Arctic Sea Ice News by answering reader questions and covering the latest news on Arctic sea ice and climate. These two Web sites take science information directly to the public, and also provide valuable background material for journalists, allowing them to dig deeper and ask smart questions. As we have reached out to a general audience, we have also started to experiment with social media. NSIDC's Twitter feeds reach more than 4000 people, and our new Facebook page provides another place where readers can interact with us.

Opening the lines of communication with the general public means that we hear more often from people who disagree with our data and scientific findings. We have to respond to criticisms and accusations of incorrect data, which are occasionally made in public forums such as blogs and newspapers. What have we learned from these experiences?

10h45 - Nunaliit App for Ingesting Stories from the Land/Sea/Ice (Shhh - It's Data Management)

A. Hayes, J-P. Fiset, D.R.F. Taylor

1Geomatics and Cartographic Research Centre, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada

Collecting stories while in the field has been an ugly affair. Researchers and educators often engage students, community members, and research assistants with diverse levels of technical capacity in projects designed to learn and share while collecting local and traditional knowledge for preservation. Participants are sent out with video and still cameras, audio recorders, GPS units, and notebooks. Assuming the devices all make it back from the floe edge, they are then left with the horrible task of pulling all the data off the devices, formatting it, cataloguing it, and somehow bundling it up in an effort to preserve it. Should this next mission be accepted, the hurdles will only multiply. Devices have different capabilities and formats. The computers used to process it all seem to want to force you through a different software workflow, and more often than not, data will be misplaced, critical metadata will not be recorded, and the various devices will be thrown back into a cupboard without an appreciation for any data retention/deletion plans. To top it off, several months or years later you will be asked to recall additional details about the data (that you never thought to record in the first place) and find all the files that are on that DVD somewhere under your desk so you can contribute it to a data catalogue (or if you are super organized - actually put the data into a data management system!)

Ugh. Makes you want to bury your head in the snow and hire a masters student to worry about it all. But to fully engage communities and students, this process has to improve.

What if a contributor could take one device into the field and it recorded the data in standard formats, only prompted for metadata that you and the community deemed relevant to what you were documenting, and upon returning to the community, fulfilled many of your data management, cataloguing, and community dissemination obligations with one touch of a button?

We made an app for that. We also made a whole community-aware, atlas-enhanced distributed data management system that lives behind it. We'd like to show it to you. We'd like some people to use it. We'd like feedback to improve it.

11h00 - Telling IPY Stories Online

S. Madwar1, G. Gagnier1, M.J. Starr2

1Canadian Geographic, Ottawa, Canada2Royal Canadian Geographical Society, Ottawa, Canada

Canadian Geographic's interactive International Polar Year (IPY) map is the most extensive Web-based resource presenting Canadian IPY research to the general public. It is one of several IPY-themed online modules produced by the magazine's website and the Canadian Atlas Online (CAOL), including a set of lesson plans distributed to 16,000 schools across Canada.

This presentation will focus on the coordination and resources required to produce the IPY interactive map, a tool that effectively presents the geographical scope of Canadian IPY research to the general public. It will also discuss how the online, interactive format can be used to document international contributions to IPY and communicate the IPY legacy in an accessible, visually appealing medium.

In 2009, the CAOL, in partnership with the IPY Canada outreach office, produced an online map featuring Canadian IPY research projects and the locations and regions they covered.

DBx Geomatics, an Ottawa-based company that specializes in developing interactive web mapping applications, developed the map and interactive features. Canadian Geographic staff provided the geographical scope of each Canadian IPY project as well as a summary of the research and any accompanying audio-visual material supplied by the researchers and/or the IPY outreach office.

The process of writing the project summaries, procuring audio-visual material and consulting with DBx Geomatics began in March 2009. The map was launched along with the IPY-themed January/February 2010 issue of Canadian Geographic magazine.

The IPY interactive map can be navigated by selecting one of 50 IPY Canada research projects from a drop-down menu. Alternatively, users can select a region on the map to learn about the IPY projects conducted there. All text on the site is searchable by keyword. The site also contains a list of helpful links to relevant external sources. It can be found at

Interactive multimedia packages offer numerous entry points into IPY research.

Students learning about the Arctic, for example, have used the interactive map to learn about research done in the region, various challenges facing northern communities and wildlife, and a multifaceted explanation of how the environment in the North may change over the next few decades.

Members of the media can access summaries of research projects for story ideas. Policymakers gain a better understanding of the scope of issues examined throughout the course of IPY and identify research relevant to their work. Politicians can similarly determine which areas of research affect their constituents

A similar format can be used to cover the work done by participating research teams in both poles by drawing on the resources gathered throughout the course of IPY.

While the IPY period ended in 2009, its legacy continues. Digital tools like the IPY interactive map are effective in carrying on that legacy, because they are accessible to the general public and can be continually updated to reflect advances in polar research. Written reports and audiovisual material collected by participants are simply synthesized in a format that communicates to the public the depth and scope of IPY research.

11h15 - Project Naming: An Outreach Project that Engages Inuit Communities through Social Media and Collaboration

B. Greenhorn

1Library and Archives Canada, Ottawa, Canada

Project Naming is a community engagement and photographic identification project organized by Library and Archives Canada (LAC). Since the project launched in 2004, more than 7,000 photographic records have been digitized and made available in a database on the Project Naming web site ( This has been a reciprocal project. Since its inception, LAC staff has worked closely with Inuit Elders and youth, academics, researchers, teachers and members from the general public who have an interest in the North. Through digitization, Inuit have been given access to photographs of their family members and loved ones. In return, they have been able to give the people depicted in these images back their identity by naming them. In addition to naming individuals depicted in the photographs, Inuit, academics and researchers have also provided valuable information pertaining to geographical locations, historical facts and other relevant data that enriches the photographic descriptions in LAC's database. The archival community and Canadians living outside of Nunavut benefit from the identifications and knowledge shared by the Elders and younger generations of Inuit. New identifications have been gathered through a variety of methods including: the online form available on the web site; regular dialogue and communication with Inuit living in Nunavut and elsewhere in Canada; in the Nunavut News North and Kivalliq News 'Do You Know Your Elders?' weekly photo features published by Northern News Services; public outreach through presentations; media coverage; and, community-wide photo identification events, such as those held in Igloolik, Rankin Inlet and Iqaluit. Since its launch, new identifications have been sent to LAC, which have then been entered into the database. Utilizing Web 2.0 technology, LAC plans to launch a social tagging application, allowing members of the community to directly input the names of individuals, as well as other information related to the photographs digitized. This information will be available to members of the public through a user-friendly search interface.

This presentation will provide an overview and the methodology used in Project Naming. Specific examples of how community links and collaborative elements that have led to the success of the project with will be interwoven into the discussion.

11h30 - ARCTIS - Arctic Resources & Transportation Information System

Bernt A. Bremdal1,2

1CognIT a.s., Oslo, Norway; 2Narvik University College, Narvik, Norway

The presentation will introduce ARCTIS, the Arctic Resources & Transportation Information System. It is a new information system developed by The Centre for High North Logistics (CHNL) and CognIT. The system addresses the challenges linked to shipping and logistics in the High North. Particular attention is placed on the current insufficient infrastructure in the area, the vast geographical distances, and the harsh climatic conditions. Any future developments of the shipping infrastructure and safety of navigation along the Northeast Passage would benefit greatly from close collaboration and sharing of available know-how between Norway and Russia as well as with the other Arctic states. CHNL which is based in Kirkenes in North-Norway is an international center collecting high quality and up-to-date information that will contribute to economically viable, doable, and environmentally friendly transport and logistics solutions for the Northeast Passage and Northern Sea Route and for other transport corridors in the Arctic. This information will be made readily available to businesses, government and research organizations. One specific ambition is to serve the shipping and logistics companies with the best available information to make informed decisions about their future business activities in the Arctic Ocean.

The ARCTIS system will be instrumental for this mission. ARCTIS is a combined decision support system and knowledge sharing platform that will be customized for businesses and entrepreneurs who will venture the opportunities that the High North offers. ARCTIS is also meant to support continued research and help to share new insight among researchers preoccupied with the Arctic. In order to achieve this, ARCTIS seeks to involve as many parties as possible that share the same focus. Consequently a community concept is applied that underpins both the knowledge sharing mechanisms, dissemination of research and as well as decision support. ARCTIS and the community that it organizes will provide up-to-date and high quality information on the Arctic and play a key role in informing users about recent developments, operational conditions, technical improvements, and opportunities related to resource development, shipping and logistics in Arctic waters.

ARCTIS will strive to be the preferred gateway to know-how for businesses, governments and the research community itself on Arctic shipping and logistics. The focus of ARCTIS is on non-living Arctic resources (excluding fisheries and forestry) shipping and other means of transport, infrastructure development, and innovative logistics solutions. The content of ARCTIS and the information provided will be tailor-made for the needs of the maritime-logistics and resource-exploitation industries in particular.

ARCTIS is based on CognIT's Knowledge Hub. This is a text-to-knowledge system that combines intelligent authoring tools, wiki technologies, semantic search, information extraction and research intelligence technologies. The Knowledge Hub features a whole range of options that can be exploited by the ARCTIS community as content and use of the system accumulates. Novel technologies are offered that can turn accumulations of documents into a semi-structured database and knowledge repository that can support fusion of information, planning and even simulations.

10h00 - 12h00 ACTION FORUM - Bringing it all together: next steps to address tomorrow's polar issues

Room: 511ADLeader: David Hik

 Download abstract

 International Polar Initiative (IPI) (Draft concept note)

10h00 - 12h00 INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE EXCHANGE: Policy and Governance

Room: 513ABConvenor: Cindy Dickson (Arctic Athabaskan Council)

Presenters: Cindy Dickson (Arctic Athabaskan Council); and John B. Zoe (Land Claims Agreement Coalition)

This session will focus on policy development going forward and how researchers can help Arctic Indigenous peoples move towards self-governance through cooperative social science.